What is Periodic Phenomenon

Periodic movements

periodic phenomenon is a phenomenon that reproduces identical to itself at regular time intervals.

Examples:

  • Simple pendulum (see opposite)
  • Rotation of the Moon around the Earth
  • Rotation of the earth around the Sun

Definitions:

The period of a periodic phenomenon is the smallest time interval after which the phenomenon happens again identical to itself. We note T. It is expressed in seconds (s).
The frequency of a periodic phenomenon is the number of times where this phenomenon repeats per second. We note f. It is expressed in Hertz (Hz).
Examples:

  • The period of a simple pendulum is T = 1, 5 s.Its frequency is given by:

f = 1 / T < = > f = 1/1,5 < = > f = 0, 67Hz

  • The frequency of oscillations of a quartz crystal is f = 32768Hz.Its period is:

T = 1 / f < = > T = 1/32768 < = > T = 3, 052.10 ^-5 s

Periodic astronomical phenomena

1 Solar day

The solar day is the time between two successive passages of the Sun in the plan to the meridian of the place. (meridian of the place: a half large imaginary circle through location and the two poles).
By convention, 1 day = 24 hours = 86,400 seconds.

2 Phases of the Moon

For a terrestrial observer, the period of rotation of the Moon around the Earth is 29.5 days.

3 Seasons

The period of rotation of the earth around the Sun is 365.25 days. The season depends on the position of the Earth from the Sun.

What is Periodic Phenomenon 1

The Earth’s rotation

  • In the West, the rotation of the Earth was discovered by Ecphante and Heraclides. Ecphante of Crotone was a Pythagorean philosopher difficult to date (between 490 BC and s first.). Heracleides of du Pont, around 340 BC, was an original thinker, student of the Pythagoreans, Plato’s friend, listener of Aristotle.
  • 19th century: first doubts about the regularity of ground movement.This isn’t a rigid body, energy dissipation, downturn.
  • 1933: highlighting irregularities land (milliseconds over several months) compared with quartz oscillators.

Measure the artificial time: the mechanical clocks

What is new?

Time is measured by the discontinuous movementof gear wheels which the energy is supplied by thefall of a weight. The technical problem and theory is to find how to stabilize the speed of the wheels so the weight fall accelerates it. A regulatory mechanism is necessary, it is the exhaust. It is to block the weight and so the rotation of the wheels for a short time and at regular intervals with a pendulum or pendulum. Check HealthVV.com for a cheap wall clock with pendulum. So measure an artificial time which depends on the correction of the effects of gravity. It is a time that is not continuous as the flow of water or the apparent movement of the Sun, it is a divisible time in successive units.

The first mechanical clocks appeared in the 14th century. Connected to a Bell, they sound the hour and are all aimed at monks whose days were strictly cut out by the rule of St. Benedict in seven periods of prayer, in the middle of the night where they ring the first prayer, Matins, until the last two, Vespers, and Compline, late in the day. From the 14th century, the cities of Europe to have clocks on the spires and the Belfries. They are unclear and need to be addressed on a daily basis on the water clocks or sundials. In these early clocks, this mechanism is a foliot, single stem at the ends of which are hung two masses, which can oscillate horizontally around a vertical axis supporting in the middle.

It is in the 13th century, as the first clocks to weight (clocks parochial or public buildings) appear. A rapid improvement of the technique and aesthetics helped give birth to the so-called House clock, but it remains still says very little. Mechanisms, manufactured until then iron, rust and, thereby, quickly replaced by movements in copper.

What is Periodic Phenomenon 2

Christian Huygens (1629-1695) occurred in 1657 to replace the foliot by a pendulum from the discoveries of Galileo (1564-1642) on the properties of the oscillations of the pendulum. It’s the watchmaker Salomon Costern, who made the first from the indications of Huygens pendulum clock.

At the end of the 17th century, l e great London watchmaker Daniel Quare (1649-1724) created our dial, which will later be changed by the addition of the seconds hand.

1826 1 era lit clock (Church St Bride, London).
1840 1 era electric clock to Alexander Bain (English watchmaker): energy is supplied by a battery that powers an electromagnet which swung a pendulum

Today, the quartz watch puts everyone on time. The principle, known since the 1920s, works with 2 essential elements:

  • The battery with very low consumption of the order of 10 millionth of a watt per hour, is the energy source thatreplace the spring
  • Quartz is used to its stable, accurate and reproducible oscillations. What the electronics call quartz, is not the crystalline form of silica, or its synthetic form, it is the component who is pulled including Cup and the dimensions define a precise frequency.

What is Periodic Phenomenon 3

The quartz watch technology relies on the piezo-electricity, some type of crystals phenomenon, such quartz. It appears on the surface of these bodies when submitting them to pressure or electrical charges. This allows for stable mechanical and electrical vibrations. These properties have been highlighted in Paris in 1880 by Pierre and Jacques Curie.

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