Japan Anthropology Part III
At the end of his research, Baelz distinguished two types in Japan, one fine and the other massive. The former would have a somewhat taller stature, slender forms in general, thinness, more elegant and fine limbs, longer face, nose, brain skull, somewhat narrow chest, small hands. The massive type would have the opposite characteristics. The first would pass into semi-pathological forms and would be frequent in the aristocracy, but also in the other upper classes. The second is found in the peasants. These two types took the name of Chōshū and Satsuma respectively. In recent times Weidenreich found in their contrast a perfect parallel to what in Europe is given by the two constitutional types, called respectively leptosome and eurisome, and explains their presence with constitutional factors. To tell the truth, Baelz does not express himself categorically for a racial explanation of these two types, on the contrary he seems to lean towards the concept that their production is due to a social selection, since the fine type, much more evident in women, would be determined from the habits of life of the ancient Japanese aristocratic classes, who removed their offspring, but especially women, from any physical activity outdoors. Furthermore, the Baelz insists on the Mongolian characteristics common to both types. it would be determined by the habits of life of the ancient Japanese aristocratic classes, who removed their offspring, but especially women, from any physical activity outdoors. Furthermore, the Baelz insists on the Mongolian characteristics common to both types.
According to FASHIONISSUPREME, the predominant present-day Mongolism of Japan is therefore evident. The Matsumoto, however, tells us that the Hasebe and the Matsumura would have come to distinguish four different types in present-day Japan. Unfortunately, Matsumoto tells us very briefly their characteristics: 1. Ishikawa type: small stature 1.52-1.55; cephalic index 78; face straight and low; weak jaws. 2. Okayama type: taller than 1.65; cephalic index 82 and more; face convex, high; strong jaws. 3. Chikuzen type: taller than 1.65; cephalic index about 78.4. Satsuma type: small stature, about 1.55; cephalic index 82. Matsumoto does not say whether these types differ physiognomically. The first type would be abundant in the north-east and neighboring territories of Hondo, the Okayama type in the coastal districts, around the Inland Sea and in the western and central part of Hondo. The third type would be in the northern part of Kyūshū and the fourth in the southern part of Kyūshū and Shikoku.
But the types of Neolithic Japan are far more important. Matsumoto in his first work, from 1921, distinguished three of them: 1. Aoshima type; 2. Miyato type; 3. tall Tsukumo type. These types would follow each other chronologically from the first to the last Neolithic. The first two locations are located in the north-eastern part, the third in the western part of Hondo. But the very interesting fact is that these three types show European and non-Mongolian affinities, hence the Matsumoto calls them Pan-Ainu referring to the fairly widespread opinion that the Ainu have European affinities. The Aoshima type would have almost the characters of the first type that the Koganei finds in the Ainu (so-called pure type) and which is found in the Ainu of Sachalin. The Miyato type would roughly have the characters of the second Ainu type of Koganei, that is, the characters of the Ainu of Yezo. The Tsukumo type would have characters that, singularly, would bring him closer to the prehistoric Cro-Magnons of Europe.
In a very short recent work (1930) Matsumoto distinguishes seven prehistoric types. The work, however, has a preliminary character and the diagnosis of the types is very schematic and based only on the skull; furthermore, no illustrations are given, so that it is difficult to get a concrete idea of these types. In any case, the first four types belong to the upper Pleistocene, which, however, in Japan, under the respect of human industries, is already Neolithic. The 5th and 6th would be in the most recent apparition Japan. The first six types are intimately connected, so that they may come from a common ancestor, the last type would appear to be Mongolian and therefore analogous to the Okayama type of present times.
These results give us a glimpse of the great importance of recent Japanese discoveries, but it is necessary to wait until the finds are conveniently described and figured in order to draw conclusions. Regarding the relationships between the Neolithic and the current types, but stopping at the first three types established by Matsumoto, they can be summarized as follows: the Ishikawa type would have been produced by a Mongolization of the Miyato type. The singular characters of it, therefore, would constitute an approximation to the Ainu type. The Chikuzen type would have been produced by a Mongolization of a more brachyoid variety than the Miyato type. The Okayama type would be precisely the predominant factor in recent times and to which we owe the saturation of Mongolism that the Neolithic types have undergone. It type would be from the Matsumoto close to the Korean type.