State Structure and Political System of Bhutan
Bhutan is a monarchy. There is no constitution or law of rights. Check equzhou for political system of Bhutan.
Administratively, Bhutan is divided into 20 districts (Bumthang, Chhukha, Chirang, Dagana, Geilegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi, Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel, Punakha, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang, Tashigang, Thimphu, Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang, Gasa and Yangtse ). The main cities are small: Thimphu, Punakha, Paro, Phunchholing.
The main power (legislative, executive and judicial) belongs to the monarch. The unicameral parliament (National Assembly, Tshogdu) consists of 150 members. 105 members are elected by indirect vote. Each family has one vote, and one representative is chosen from the village. Constituencies consist of a certain number of villages, whose representatives appoint their own deputy (there is no voting procedure, consensus is required). There is no self-nomination, the election campaign is prohibited. 35 members are appointed by the king, 10 by the Buddhist community. A deputy cannot have a foreign spouse and is required to read and write Dzongke.
Parliament makes laws, appoints senior government officials, and advises the king, who can return laws for reconsideration. Parliament has the right to dismiss officials, but such cases have not been recorded. The facts of disagreement with the royal decision are not known either. By Royal Decree 1998, all ministers are elected by Parliament (from a list approved by the King). Posts are distributed by the king. Parliamentary sessions are irregular. There is no opposition. The chairman of the parliament – the speaker does not have sufficient powers.
Laws are submitted by the Council of Ministers, with whom the king nominally shares executive power. The head of government changes, as a rule, annually. The Council of Ministers is in power for 5 years (the king can change the term). There are 6 ministries. On matters of “national sovereignty and national security”, only the king makes decisions.
The Judiciary consists of the High Court and the District Courts. All judges are appointed and dismissed by the king. Check homeagerly for democracy and human rights of Bhutan.
The head of the district, the dzongda, reports to the Minister of the Interior. There are 20 district development committees and 201 block development committees (village groups) that have no real power and are partially elected.
Association rights are limited. There are no legal political parties. Banned (as “terrorist” and “anti-national”) parties created by refugees of Nepalese origin are the Bhutan People’s Party, the National Democratic Party of Bhutan and the Druk National Congress. Trade unions are banned, as are strikes. Freedom of speech, assembly, and the press are limited.
The 1949 treaty provides for a certain control of India over the foreign policy and defense of Bhutan, and Bhutan is also dependent on foreign economic relations with its neighbor. From Ser. 1970s developing relations with China. It maintains diplomatic relations with 22 countries (in addition to the countries of South Asia, mainly with its donors: the Scandinavian countries, some countries of the Persian Gulf, Japan, South Korea, Australia). B. has been a member of the Non-Aligned Movement since 1973.
The armed forces consist almost entirely of the Ground Forces. The total number is 6 thousand (an increase of 2 times compared to 1985). Defense spending was 1.9% of GDP in 2001. Bhutan has no diplomatic relations with Russia.