State Structure and Political System of China
According to the Constitution, the People’s Republic of China is a socialist state of the people’s democratic dictatorship, led by the working class through the CCP and based on the alliance of workers and peasants. The Constitution of 1982 is in force. Amendments were made to it, in particular, in 1988 they legalized private farms and established the possibility of transferring land use rights, in 1993 the task of implementing the “4 modernization program”, multi-party cooperation under the leadership of the CPC and building a market economy while maintaining the regulatory role of the state. Check equzhou for political system of China.
Administrative division: the PRC includes four cities of central subordination – Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, Chongqing; 22 provinces – Hebei, Shanxi, Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, Fujian, Jiangxi, Shandong, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong, Hainan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai; 5 autonomous regions – Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR), Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (GCHAR), Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR), Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR), and a special administrative Hong Kong District (Hong Kong SAR), Macao Special Administrative Region (Mao Men SAR) and Taiwan Province.
The largest cities (million people without the population of adjacent counties): Beijing, Shanghai (9.862), Chongqing (6.609), Tianjin (5.325), Wuhan (4.411), Harbin (4.35), Guangzhou (4.361), Shenyang (4.333) ), Chengdu (3.459), Nanjing (3.095), Changchun (2.878), Xian (2.858), Dalian (2.754).
The highest body of legislative power is the National People’s Congress (NPC), locally – local People’s Congresses (NPC) at various levels. The supreme body of executive power is the President of the People’s Republic of China (head of state), the State Council of the People’s Republic of China (Central People’s Government). The advisory body is the People’s Political Consultative Council of China (CPPCC). The head of state is Chinese President Hu Jintao. Premier of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China – Wen Jiabao. The head of the NPC Standing Committee is Wu Bangguo. The head of the CPPCC is Jia Qinglin.
The NPC consists of deputies elected from the provinces, autonomous regions, cities of central subordination and the Armed Forces. NPC deputies are elected for a term of 5 years. NPC sessions are usually convened by the NPC Standing Committee once a year. The NPC performs the following functions: 1) amends the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China, supervises its implementation, adopts and amends state laws; 2) elect the Chairman and Vice Chairman of the People’s Republic of China, approve the candidates for the Premier and Vice Premier of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China, members of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China, ministers, chairmen of committees, the Chief Auditor and the Head of the Secretariat of the State Council, elect the Chairman of the Central Military Commission (CMC) and approve the candidacies of other members of the CMC, elect Chairman of the Supreme People’s Court and Prosecutor General, and also has the right to remove all of the above persons; 3) consider and approve the country’s socio-economic development plan, report on its implementation, state budget and report on its implementation, approve the formation of provinces, autonomous regions and cities of central subordination, approve the creation of special administrative regions and their regime, resolve issues of war and peace, amend or cancel the resolutions of the PC NPC that have become invalid; 4) perform other functions of the supreme body of state power. The permanent body of the NPC is the Standing Committee of the NPC (PC NPC), which performs the functions of the highest body of state power in between sessions of the NPC. The PC of the NPC meets once every 2 months. The chairman of the PC of the NPC and his deputies can hold these positions for no more than 2 consecutive terms (each term is 5 years). The PC of the NPC performs the following functions: 1) adopts laws and makes changes to them, with the exception of those that must be adopted by the NPC; 2) gives interpretation of the Constitution and laws, cancels acts, resolutions and orders of central and local executive bodies and local legislative bodies that contradict the Constitution, laws and administrative legal acts; 3) exercises control over the work of the highest executive bodies of the state, approves and appoints the heads of the central executive, military and judicial bodies; 4) consider the necessary amendments to the state plan and make decisions on issues of current state activities, as well as perform other functions assigned to it by the NPC. Check homeagerly for democracy and human rights of China.
The President and Vice President of the People’s Republic of China are elected by the NPC. Citizens of the People’s Republic of China who have reached 45 years of age can be elected. Their term of office is 5 years and they cannot hold these positions for more than 2 consecutive terms. Based on the decisions of the NPC and the NPC Committee, the President of the People’s Republic of China publishes laws, appoints and dismisses the Premier of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China, deputy premiers, ministers, chairmen of committees, awards state orders, publishes decrees on pardon, on the introduction of martial law, declares a state of war, publishes decrees on mobilization, ratifies and denounces treaties and agreements concluded with foreign states.
The State Council of the People’s Republic of China, or the Central People’s Government, is the executive body of the state, the highest state administrative body. The State Council is approved at a session of the NPC and is accountable to it; between sessions of the NPC, it is accountable to the PC of the NPC. The State Council consists of the prime minister, deputy prime ministers, members of the State Council, ministers, chairmen of committees, the chief auditor, and the head of the secretariat. Their term of office is 5 years, not more than 2 terms in a row. The State Council, after the reform carried out in March 2003 at the 1st session of the 10th NPC, includes a secretariat, 22 ministries and 4 committees, the People’s Bank of China, an audit body and several auxiliary and working institutions. The State Council performs the following functions: 1) on the basis of the Constitution and laws, determines administrative measures, issues by-laws; 2) submit proposals for consideration by the National People’s Congress or the Steering Committee of the National People’s Congress; 3) determine the tasks of the organs of the State Council, carry out a unified management of the work of ministries and committees, local state administrative bodies throughout the country; 4) draws up and implements a plan for the social and economic development of the country, the state budget, directs and manages work in the field of the economy, and resolves other issues of the development of the national economy; 5) approves the territorial division of the administrative regions of the country; 6) considers and decides on the staffing of administrative bodies, appoints, removes and trains administrative personnel.
The organs of state power and state administrative organs in the localities are the local SNPs and the people’s governments, which are established in accordance with the administrative division. SPCs (including their standing committees at and above the county level) and people’s governments are set up in provinces, autonomous regions, centrally subordinated cities, autonomous regions, counties, autonomous counties, cities; urban areas, townships, national townships and towns. The term of office of the Council of People’s Commissars of provinces, autonomous regions, cities of central subordination, autonomous regions and cities divided into districts is 5 years; SNP of counties, autonomous counties, cities without district division, city districts, townships, national townships and townships – 3 years. Deputies of the Council of People’s Congresses of provinces, autonomous regions, cities of central subordination, autonomous okrugs and cities with district division are elected by the Council of People’s Commissars one step lower; Deputies of the Council of People’s Congresses of counties, autonomous counties, cities without district division, city districts, townships, national townships and townships are elected directly by voters. The local people’s governments are the executive organs of the local SNPs, the state organs at the local level. Provincial governors, presidents of autonomous regions, heads of districts, counties, districts, township and township chiefs are responsible for the work of their people’s governments. local government agencies. Provincial governors, presidents of autonomous regions, heads of districts, counties, districts, township and township chiefs are responsible for the work of their people’s governments. local government agencies. Provincial governors, presidents of autonomous regions, heads of districts, counties, districts, township and township chiefs are responsible for the work of their people’s governments.
The People’s Political Consultative Council of China (CPPCC) was established in January 1946 in Chongqing (then called the Political Consultative Council (PCC), renamed the CPPCC in September 1949 in Peking). The CPPCC is an organization of the Chinese People’s Patriotic United Front, an organ for promoting democracy and exercising mutual control of political parties in China’s political system. The united front is made up of representatives of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), various democratic parties, non-partisan democrats, representatives of public organizations and public figures, ethnic minorities, compatriots from Taiwan, Xianggang (Hong Kong) and Macau (Macao), Chinese living abroad. The CPPCC conducts consultations on the main directions of state policy and important problems of the country, exercises control over the work of the CPC, people’s governments and other state organs, makes suggestions and critical remarks. Usually, the CPPCC discusses issues during the NPC and, following the discussion in the session, brings its opinion to the session of the NPC before deciding on important issues.
The Communist Party of China (CPC) was formed in June 1921 in Shanghai. Since the founding of the PRC in 1949, it has been the ruling party; 58 million people At the XIV Congress of the CPC (September 1997), Deng Xiaoping’s theory of building socialism with Chinese characteristics was approved as the guiding idea of the CPC, the Main Party Program for the initial stage of socialism was developed, and the main goals and political principles for the development of the economy, politics and culture were developed. In the new version of the Charter adopted at the 16th CPC Congress (November 2002), the general task of the party is to unite with all the peoples of the country, relying on its own strength, to gradually modernize industry, agriculture, defense, science and technology and turn China into a socialist state with a highly developed culture and democracy.
The United Front, in addition to the CPC, includes 8 democratic parties, all of which participate in the work of the CPPCC. These include: 1) The Revolutionary Committee of the Kuomintang (RKGD), created in January 1948 in Xianggang (Hong Kong), has almost 55,000 members, the chairman of the RKGD is He Luli, the party is related to the Kuomintang, maintains close ties with Taiwan; 2) The Democratic League of China (DLK), founded in March 1941 in Chongqing as the League of Democratic Political Organizations, is the largest in terms of membership. 131 thousand people, the chairman of the LDK is Ding Shisun, most of the party members are the intelligentsia of the highest and middle levels in the field of culture, education, science and technology; 3) The China Democratic Nation Building Association (ADNSK), was formed in December 1945 in Chongqing by the patriotic commercial and industrial national bourgeoisie, closely associated with the All-China Commerce and Industry Association, the total number of party members is more than 71 thousand people, the chairman of the ADNSC is Cheng Siwei; 4) The Association for the Promotion of Democracy in China (ASRDK), founded in December 1945 in Shanghai, included representatives of the Shanghai intelligentsia; 67 thousand people, the chairman of the ASRDK is Xu Jialu; 5) Workers ‘and Peasants’ Democratic Party of China (WPDPK), established in August 1930 as the Provisional Action Committee of the Kuomintang, received its current name in 1947. Most of the members of the party are medical and health workers, it consists of about 67 thousand people, chairman of the WPDP — Jiang Zhenghua; 6) Zhongguo Zhigundan (Pursuit for Justice Party), the oldest of the democratic parties, founded in 1925 in San Francisco from among the patriotic leaders of Xianggang (Hong Kong) and Chinese living abroad. In 1950 the party moved its headquarters to Guangzhou. The majority of party members are Chinese emigrants who have returned to their homeland and members of their families, who represent the interests of overseas Chinese in Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan. Zhigongdan Central Committee Chairman Luo Haotsai. Of the 16,000 members of the party, the majority are intellectuals, who are scientific workers; 7) the Jiusan Society (September 3), founded by a group of progressive scientists in Chongqing in 1944 as a Democratic Scientific Society and renamed the Jiusan Society in September 1945 in honor of the victory over Japan. In total, there are St. 70 thousand people, chairman of the Central Committee – Wu Zeping, most of them represent the scientific and technical intelligentsia; 8) Taiwan Democratic Self-Government League (TLDS), established on November 12 (Sun Yat-sen’s birthday) 1947 in Hong Kong. This is the smallest party – only 1400 people, but it expresses the interests of the natives of Taiwan living in the PRC. Chairman of the TLDS Central Committee – Zhang Kehui. Most of its members represent various categories of intellectuals – teachers, doctors, engineers, scientists who advocate the return of Taiwan.
The leading organization of business circles is the All-China Association of Industrialists and Traders (AAPT), founded in October 1953. It is a people’s commercial society for the development of internal and external relations. It includes entrepreneurs in industry and trade, many of whom are well acquainted with modern technology, have extensive economic and managerial experience. The highest governing body of the association is the congress, which elects the Central Executive Committee. Jing Shuping, Chairman of the WAPT Executive Committee.
There are many public organizations in China, the most important of which are the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU), the Communist Youth Union of China (CCYU), the All-China Women’s Federation (ACWF), the All-China Youth Federation (ACYF) and the All-China Student Federation (ACFS).
The All China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) is the highest governing body of local trade unions and industrial unions. Created in May 1925, it contains St. 100 million people, Chairman of the CCFP – Wei Jianxing. The main duty of trade unions is to protect the legitimate rights and interests of workers and employees.
The Communist Youth League of China (KSMK) is a mass organization of Chinese youth, has 68.5 million people, the first secretary of the Central Committee of the KSMK is Zhou Qiang. Created in 1920 under the name of the Chinese Socialist Youth Union, in January 1925 it was renamed the KSMK. The main activity of the KSMK at present is the ideological, political and educational work among Komsomol members and youth.
The All-China Women’s Federation (ACWF) is a mass organization of women – workers and employees, peasant women, intellectuals and other working women in China. The chairman of the WCFW is Peng Peiyun (female). Founded in April 1949 as the All-China Democratic Women’s Federation, it received its current name in September 1957. The main task of the WCFW is to achieve true equality between women and men, help women in need, protect the rights and interests of women, and issues of family education.
The All-China Students’ Federation (ACFS) was founded in June 1919 in Shanghai and is based on the system of collective membership of China’s higher and secondary educational institutions. Chairman of the VKFS – Shen Yao (female).
In domestic politics, in recent years, a course has been pursued towards separating the functions of the party and the state through the reform of the state apparatus. One of the important directions of this reform was the formation of a mechanism for the turnover of senior managers. At the 16th CPC Congress held in November 2002, the General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee, Jiang Zemin, by age, gave way to the younger leader of the “fourth generation” Hu Jintao, who headed the Graduate School of the CPC Central Committee, retaining only the post of Chairman of the Military Council of the CPC Central Committee. At the 1st session of the 10th NPC (March 2003), many government leaders retired due to age. Hu Jintao was elected President of the People’s Republic of China instead of Jiang Zemin, Premier Zhu Rongji gave way to Wen Jiabao, and Chairman of the NPC Standing Committee Li Peng – Wu Bangguo.
In the field of foreign policy, in the past decade, China has been adapting to dramatically changed external conditions. In this regard, attempts were made to normalize relations with Western countries, which deteriorated sharply after the events on Tiananmen Square in May-June 1989, as well as to develop relations with the Russian Federation, the CIS countries after the collapse of the USSR and with developing countries, especially with the “Group of 77 “. Currently, China maintains diplomatic relations with more than 160 countries of the world. However, more than 20 countries maintain diplomatic relations with Taiwan, which precludes the establishment of diplomatic relations by the PRC with them. In addition to official relations with the countries of the world through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The People’s Republic of China is developing public diplomacy with non-governmental organizations in various countries of the world through the Chinese People’s Society for Friendship with Foreign Countries (CNODZ). The activities of the society enjoy the help and support from the Chinese government and various circles of the public.
Military establishment. In 2001, the PLA had 2.470 million personnel, incl. 1.7 million people – Ground forces, 0.42 million people. – Air Force, 0.25 million people. – Navy, 0.1 million people. – strategic nuclear forces. In the 1990s there was a reduction in personnel and the removal from service of the most obsolete models of equipment. As a result, the number of combined-arms divisions decreased from 90 to 63, combat aircraft in the Air Force – from 5260 to 3000, submarines – from 93 to 63, combat aircraft of naval aviation – from 880 to 507. According to the data at the con. 2002, the PRC’s official military spending was 170.7 billion yuan (US$20.8 billion). The PRC is implementing a strategy for developing defense potential and modernizing the Armed Forces.
forces of China to ser. 21 century, which includes three stages: 1) until 2000, the creation of the foundations for transformation; 2) in 2000-20 the troops should become the strongest in Asia; 3) in 2020-50, it is expected to complete the modernization and reach the advanced level of developed countries.
The PRC has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (established with the USSR on October 3, 1949).