State Structure and Political System of India
Prominent statesmen and politicians: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Mahatma Gandhi) (1869-1948). “Father of the Nation”, the leader of the struggle for national independence, the founder of the ideology and tactics of Gandhism, the master of political compromise. Used methods of non-violent resistance, incl. peaceful demonstrations, cessation of work, closing of shops, boycott of foreign goods, etc. He called the tactics of non-violent influence “satyagraha” (lit. “perseverance in truth”). He was repeatedly arrested. Check equzhou for political system of India. Conducted 17 protest hunger strikes. Assassinated January 30, 1948 by a Hindu fanatic in retaliation for his call for unity between Hindus and Muslims. Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964). “Creator of a new India”, prime minister in 1947-64, author of the course towards the development of the state sector of the economy, industrialization, agrarian reforms, reduction of social disproportions, secularization of social and political life. In 1956 he carried out an administrative-territorial reform. One of the initiators of the Bandung Conference (1955) and the Non-Aligned Movement (1961). Talented publicist. Indira Gandhi (1917-84). Prime Minister 1967-77 and 1980-84. In 1971 she won the war with Pakistan. In 1975-76, she introduced a state of emergency, which she used against the right opposition. A determined opponent of separatism and terrorism. In June 1984, she gave the order to storm the Golden Temple in Amritsar (the shrine of the Sikhs), where the separatists were. Killed October 31, 1984 by Sikh bodyguards. Atal Bihari Vajpayee (b. 1924). Prime Minister since 1998. Holds this post for the third time. Creator of the National Democratic Alliance (1999). Supporter of liberal economic reform. In 1999 signed the Lahore Declaration with Pakistan, in 2001 in Agra he held a meeting with the leadership of Pakistan. Famous poet.
Party system. Members of the Indian Parliament represent 6 national and 33 regional parties. Leading national parties: Bharatiya Janata Party (Indian People’s Party), formed in 1980, leader of ruling party coalition since 1998; Indian National Congress, established in 1885, formed one-party governments in 1947-77, 1980-89, 1991-96, the largest opposition party; The Communist Party of India (Marxist), broke away from the CPI in 1964, operates in line with the government’s democratic measures; Communist Party of India; socialist (samajwadi); Bahujan Samaj Party (Party of the Majority of the People). Main regional parties: Telugu Desam Party (Telugu Country), Andhra Pradesh, BJP ally; Shiv Sena (Army of Shivaji), Maharashtra, BJP ally; Dravida munnetra kazhagan (Dravidian Progressive Federation), Tamilnadu, ally of the BJP; Trinamul Congress, West Bengal, BJP ally; Rashtriya Janata Dal (National People’s Party), Bihar, INC ally; Anna dravida munnetra kazhagan, Tamilnadu, INC ally; Muslim League of the Indian Union, Kerala, ally of the INC; National Confederation of Jammu and Kashmir. In the 1990s, there was a transition from party to coalition government in the center and in the regions, where large alliances led by the BJP and the INC are fighting.
Leading business organizations: Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry; Trade Development Organization with India; State Trading Corporation; Confederation of Indian Industry, etc. There are thousands of public organizations and associations in India. The leading trade union centers are the Bharatiya Mazdur Sangh (Union of Indian Workers), founded in 1954, under the influence of the BJP; Indian National Congress of Trade Unions (1947, INC), Indian Trade Union Center (1970, KPI (Marx)); peasant organizations – the All India Peasants’ Union (Kisan Sabha) and the Bharatiya Kisan Sabha; youth organizations – the National Cadet Corps and Bajrang Dal (Strength Detachment); women’s organizations – the All India Democratic Women’s Association, the All India Women’s Conference, etc. Check homeagerly for democracy and human rights of India.
The priority directions of the domestic policy of the NDA government are the deepening of economic reforms, the strengthening of national security and the development of Indian democracy and federalism. In 1998, the “second generation” of reforms began. The commitment to protecting the national industry and the intention to turn India into an information superpower were reaffirmed. The BJP declares loyalty to the principles of nationalism and Hindutva (Hinduism) and declares equal respect for all religions. The party is pursuing a course towards a gradual restructuring of relations between the center and the states and increasing the financial independence of the states and union territories. It is planned to adopt an amendment to the Constitution to provide a 33% quota for women in the House of the People and state legislatures and to create a committee to fight corruption in the highest echelons of power. In the international arena, India acts from the standpoint of building a multipolar world order, universal nuclear disarmament, strengthening the role of the UN and the Security Council in international affairs, curbing world terrorism and establishing good neighborly relations with all countries of South Asia. Delhi believes that Pakistan is illegally occupying a part of Indian territory in Kashmir, and this problem can be settled on a bilateral basis on the basis of the Simla agreements of 1972. The NDA government attaches particular importance to deepening and developing relations with the United States, as well as strengthening traditional ties with the Russian Federation. It is in favor of equalizing relations with the PRC and approves the idea of an alliance between the Russian Federation-India-China.
The armed forces consist of three types of troops: the Ground Forces (36 divisions numbering 1.1 million people), the Air Force (130 thousand) and the Naval Forces (53 thousand), as well as auxiliary services (military engineering, medical, general headquarters, etc.). There are 75 ground-to-ground tactical missiles, 3614 tanks (including 1900 T-72M1), 835 combat aircraft (mainly MiG-27, MiG-29, Mirage-2000N, ” Jaguar, Su-30), 1 aircraft carrier, 8 destroyers, 17 submarines. The commander-in-chief is the president of the country. Defense policy is formed by the Council of Ministers.
The Republic of India has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (established with the USSR on April 13, 1947). In January 1993, India and the Russian Federation signed the Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation. In October 2000, the Declaration on Strategic Partnership between the Republic of India and the Russian Federation was signed.