State Structure and Political System of Japan
The post-war democratization of Japan was expressed, among other things, in the formation of a multi-party system. Currently, the most significant parties are: LDP, Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ), New Komeito (NC), Conservative Party (KP), Communist Party of Japan (CPJ), Social Democratic Party (SDP). Check equzhou for political system of Japan.
For 38 years (1955–93), the LDP, a party of moderate conservatism, maintained a monopoly on power, but then too close merging of its leaders with bureaucratic and business circles became a source of corruption, the party was unable to initiate and implement the economic, political and social reforms and, as a result, lost the support of many voters, which forced her to put together coalition governments (once even with such ideological opponents as the Social Democrats). The opposition parties also do not enjoy the trust of the electorate, which now and then demonstrate their inability to achieve a regular change of power. The ideological differences between them are so strong that the formation of a united front is impossible. And each of them individually is hopelessly weak, unable to fight for power alone.
Up to the beginning 21st century The interests of Japanese business circles were represented by the following organizations: the Federation of Economic Organizations (Keidanren), the Japan Association of Managers (Nikkeiren), the Society of Like-Minded Economic Policy (Keizai Doyukai), and the Japan Commercial and Industrial ward” (“Nihon shoko kaigisho”). “Keidanren” was formed in 1946 with the aim of regulating disagreements between its branch business organizations, as well as member corporations, and submitting proposals to the government on measures to stimulate the economy. The Nikkeiren emerged in 1948 as an employers’ counterpart to employee unions with the aim of developing a healthy relationship between labor and capital, determining the policy of employers in labor conflicts and in collective bargaining and managing the organizations of businessmen included in it. The Keizai Doyukai was established in 1946 as a private, non-profit and neutral organization funded entirely by its members. Society has a significant influence on the development of national and corporate policy. The Nihon Shoko Kaigisho was established in 1922. It deals mainly with foreign trade issues and has close contacts with relevant international organizations, representing the interests of its members. In May 2002, Keidanren merged with Nikkeiren under the new name Nippon Keidanren (Japan Enterprise Federation). Check homeagerly for democracy and human rights of Japan.
The democratization of Japan at the end of World War II gave rise to hundreds of various public organizations that take into account the specific needs of certain strata and groups of the population. Among them are organizations of peace supporters, women’s organizations, youth and student organizations, organizations of the intelligentsia and cultural and educational organizations of workers, friendship societies and solidarity organizations, ultra-right and left-wing extremist organizations, organizations of foreigners living in Japan, etc. Most of the public organizations function constantly, some are activated only to prepare and conduct traditional annual campaigns, there are also those that arise to solve problems of local importance. Some public organizations arose on the initiative of one party or another. For the “non-aligned” parties vigorously compete with each other. In response to this rivalry, activists at the national and local levels are organizing civic, consumer and other movements that strictly separate themselves from the ruling coalition and opposition parties.
The end of World War II served as a kind of watershed, the crossing of which dramatically changed the nature of Japan’s domestic policy. Until that moment, its tasks were reduced to the total mobilization of all the country’s resources in the interests of external expansion, to the violent suppression of any kind of opposition to the totalitarian regime and the practical disregard for the urgent needs of the population. “Let’s put aside desires until victory!” – such was the main slogan of the ruling circles up to the middle. 1940s The defeat, the occupation, the adoption of the new Constitution transferred domestic politics to completely different foundations. In the preamble of the Constitution, it was written: “State power is based on the unshakable trust of the people, its authority comes from the people, its powers are exercised by the representatives of the people, and the people enjoy its benefits.”
Japan’s foreign policy underwent exactly the same metamorphosis after World War II. From the Meiji Restoration to Ser. 1940s The country’s foreign policy largely served as a diplomatic cover for measures to expand the Japanese colonial empire, whether it was a war with China (1894-95), a war with Russia (1904-05), an invasion of Manchuria (1931) and the creation of the puppet state of Manchukuo (1932), withdrawal from the League of Nations (1933), war with China (1937), war with the United States and allies (1941). Japan’s post-war foreign policy was formed in the context of the collapse of expansionist attitudes, the rise of anti-militarist sentiments, and the constitutional formalization of the state’s renunciation of war as a means of resolving international conflicts. The foreign policy of the country is aimed at ensuring its national security, strengthening positions in the international arena, creating a favorable atmosphere for Japanese companies to enter world markets. Economic means of achieving these goals prevail. Among political means, active work in the UN stands out (Japan is a member of all its specialized organizations). Despite periodic tensions in Japanese-American relations, the alliance with the United States, which holds a nuclear “umbrella” over Japan, remains the cornerstone of its foreign policy. In relations with the PRC, the nature of which is largely determined by the complex of Japanese guilt for the excesses of the imperial army in the past, Japan is primarily interested in the possibilities of a vast market.
The armed forces of Japan, called the Self-Defense Forces and recruited on a voluntary (contract) basis, have a three-service structure: the Ground Forces, the Naval Forces and the Air Force. The number of personnel of the Ground Forces is 160 thousand people. (taking into account the combat reserve, 2002). The combat composition of 5 field armies, 13 divisions (12 infantry, 1 tank) and 14 brigades. It is armed with 1100 tanks, 710 armored personnel carriers, 820 field artillery guns, 430 aircraft and helicopters. There are no long-range reconnaissance-strike, reconnaissance-fire systems, operational-tactical and cruise missiles in service with the Ground Forces. Occupying the main place in the country’s defense system, the Naval Forces have a staff of 45 thousand people. There are 147 warships in service (total displacement – 336 thousand tons), incl. – 55 destroyers, 16 submarines, 34 minesweepers, 300 support vessels, 205 anti-submarine patrol aircraft and helicopters. The Naval Forces are not armed with ships with nuclear power plants, as well as aircraft carriers, cruisers and large landing ships. The Air Force, with a staff of 47,000, is armed with 510 aircraft, including 302 interceptor fighters, 55 close air support fighters, and 87 training aircraft. In addition, the Air Force organizationally includes 6 groups of anti-aircraft guided missiles (24 batteries with 144 launchers). There are no bomber aircraft and heavy military transport aircraft in the Air Force. Japan’s military doctrine has a clearly defined defensive focus. Military spending does not exceed 1% of GDP.
Japan has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (established with the USSR in 1925, interrupted in 1945 due to the entry of the USSR into the war with Japan and restored in 1956).