State Structure and Political System of Laos
The Lao PDR is a state of people’s democracy of a presidential-parliamentary type. The 1991 Constitution is in effect. Administrative divisions: Vientiane Municipality, Saisanbun Special Economic Zone, and 16 provinces subdivided into 142 districts. The largest cities: the capital of Vientiane, the administrative centers of Phongsali, Luang Prabang, Thakhek, Pakse, Attapy. Check equzhou for political system of Laos.
All power in the state belongs to the people, comes from the people, represented by all nationalities and social groups. The state governs society on the basis of the Constitution and laws, protects the democratic rights and freedoms of the people, incl. religion; the economy is managed through the market mechanism, subject to the principle of combining centralized and local leadership.
The highest body of legislative power is the unicameral National Assembly (109 deputies). The highest body of executive power is the Council of Ministers. The head of state is the president. The head of the National Assembly is the chairman. The head of the Council of Ministers is the Prime Minister. The President is elected by the National Assembly for a term of 5 years. The National Assembly is elected by general, direct, secret, equal elections on an alternative basis for a term of 5 years. The Council of Ministers is approved by the National Assembly on the proposal of the President.
Local executive and legislative power belongs to: in the province to the governor, in the municipality to the prefect (both are appointed by the president), in the districts to the chiefs appointed by the prime minister. The rights and obligations of the heads of local administrations are to ensure the implementation of the Constitution, the laws of the state and orders of higher authorities, the management and control over the activities of organizations and departments within their competence, as well as the suspension or cancellation of their orders that are contrary to the law. Check homeagerly for democracy and human rights of Laos.
Prominent statesmen of the Lao PDR. Keyson Fomvihan (1920-92) – an active participant in the national liberation struggle, organizer and leader of the People’s Liberation Army, Minister of Defense in the government of national resistance, member of the Central Committee of the FOL, member of the Communist Party of Indochina, General Secretary of the Central Committee of the NRPL since its inception, Deputy Chairman of the Central Committee of the PFL, the first Prime Minister of the Lao PDR. The initiator of the transition of the Lao PDR to a market mechanism for managing the economy in the middle. 1980s Souphanouvong (1909-95) – an active participant in the national liberation movement; member of the government of national resistance and several coalition authorities of independent Laos; commander of the Lao Issara Armed Forces, chairman of the Central Committee of the FOL, chairman of the Central Committee of the PFL (since 1979 – FNSL), first president of the Lao PDR (1975-86), first chairman of the National Assembly (1975-86), Member of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the NRPL. Khamtai Sifandon (born 1924) has been the President of the Republic since February 1998.
There is only one party in Laos, the People’s Revolutionary Party of Laos (PRPL, until February 1972, the People’s Party of Laos), founded on March 22, 1955, on the basis of the Lao section of the Communist Party of Indochina; until August 1975, it was underground, being the leading core of the PFL, according to the Constitution, the leading force in the political system of the Lao PDR. The Front for the National Construction of Laos (FNSL, until February 1979 – the Patriotic Front of Laos), created in January 1956, unites the trade union, youth, women’s and other public organizations of the Lao PDR. The Federation of Lao Trade Unions was founded in December 1956 and is part of the World Federation of Trade Unions. The Union of People’s Revolutionary Youth of Laos (SNRML, until April 1983 – People’s Revolutionary Youth of Laos) was created in July 1972. The Union of Lao Women (until May 1984 – Association of Patriotic Women of Laos) was created in July 1956.
Inside the country, the state pursues a policy of unity and equality of all nationalities and promotes in every possible way the constant improvement of their socio-economic situation; protects and develops various economic structures and forms of ownership; guarantees the right to use land that is the property of the entire national community represented by the state, to transfer and inherit it in accordance with the law; takes care of the development of health, education and culture, paying special attention to remote areas; ensures the protection of the nation and the security of the entire people with the help of the national army and other power structures.
In the field of foreign policy, the state promotes the expansion of economic ties with other countries on the basis of mutual respect for independence, sovereignty, equality and mutual benefit. In foreign policy, the principles of peaceful coexistence, friendship and cooperation, territorial integrity, non-interference in the internal affairs of other states are observed.
Military establishment. Regular troops (29.1 thousand people, 2003) are recruited on the basis of the law on military service (the term of service is at least 1.5 years); there are paramilitary formations (militia – 100 thousand people), local self-defense organizations. The number of military districts is 4. The ground forces include 5 infantry divisions, 7 separate infantry and 3 engineer regiments, a separate tank battalion, 6 artillery and 9 anti-aircraft artillery battalions, 65 separate infantry companies, one aviation communications link; armed with tanks, armored personnel carriers, mechanically traction field artillery guns, mortars, anti-tank and anti-aircraft weapons, including surface-to-air missiles. The Air Force is subdivided into squadrons, armed with transport aircraft, helicopters, AA-2 and Atoll missiles. River flotilla – 32 patrol and other boats, 4 landing ships and up to 40 units. auxiliary boats. The Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces is the President.
The Lao PDR has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (established with the USSR on October 6, 1960).