State Structure and Political System of Myanmar
Myanmar has an authoritarian military regime. The operation of the Constitution of 1974 was suspended in 1988. The new Constitution is being developed by the National Convention, convened in January 1993, in which different groups of the population are represented. Check equzhou for political system of Burma.
The country is divided into 14 administrative and national regions: Yangon, Mandalay, Tanintayin (Tenasserim), Irrawaddy, Bago (Pegu), Magwe, Sagayn and the states of Chin, Kachin, Karen (Kayin), Karenni (Kaya), Mon, Arakan (Rakhine) and Shanskoye. Large cities: Yangon, Mandalay (1.1 million people), Pattein (Basin) (420 thousand people), Molamyain (368 thousand people), Bago (Pegu) (228 thousand people).
The armed forces consist of the land army, air force and navy. Myanmar maintains a huge army (500 thousand people), second only to Vietnam in the region. The draft age is 18 years, the actual age of military men and women is from 15 to 49 years. Military spending US$39 million (1997/98), representing 2.1% of GDP.
The highest body of legislative power is the unicameral People’s Assembly (Pyidu Khlyudo) with 485 seats. Its members are elected by popular vote for a term of 4 years. Suffrage from the age of 18. The last elections were held on May 27, 1990 on a multi-party basis. They were won by the main opposition party, the National League for Democracy (NLD) (85% of the vote), but the military refused to recognize the results of the elections, and parliament did not meet again. Since 1988, the legislative, executive and legal powers have been concentrated in the hands of the GSVZP, in 1997 it was renamed the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC). Until August 2003, the head of state and prime minister was the chairman of the SPDC, Senior General Than Shwe, who replaced General So Maung in 1992. The SPDC is the cabinet of ministers. On August 25, 2003, General Khin Nyunt was appointed to the post of prime minister. In 1988, a new administration, consisting mainly of the military, was also centrally assigned to territorial entities – national and administrative regions.
Political parties. The Burmese Socialist Program Party (BSP), created by the Revolutionary Council in 1962, remained “cadre” until the beginning. 1970s, then turned into a mass (1.5 million people in 1981). After the military coup of 1988, the SVZP announced a return to a multi-party system, the PBSP was renamed the National Unity Party (PNU), and by the beginning. In 1989, 161 parties were registered, some of them led by former politicians of the 1950s. Currently, in addition to the pro-government GNU, there is the main opposition party NLD (General Secretary Aung San Suu Kyi), the Shan National League for Democracy, and the pro-government public organization Solidarity and Development Union. Check homeagerly for democracy and human rights of Burma.
Prominent statesmen and politicians:
General Aung San (1916-47) – national hero of Myanmar, leader of the liberation movement, killed by terrorists along with other members of the cabinet of ministers of the provisional government on July 19, 1947;
General Ne Win (1911-2002) – one of the leaders of the national liberation movement, ally of Aung San, leader of the military coup of 1962, founder and chairman of the PBSP and de facto leader of the country (1962-88), chairman of the Revolutionary Council (1962-74), president countries (1974-81);
Wu Nu (1907–95), civilian political leader. After the assassination of Aung San, he became the first prime minister of independent Burma (1948-62), an active participant in the political events of 1988;
U Thant (1909-74) – Secretary General of the United Nations (1961-71);
Aung San Suu Kyi (born 1945) is the daughter of General Aung San, general secretary of the opposition NLD party, Nobel Peace Prize winner in 1991. She was under house arrest in Yangon in 1989-95 and 2000-02. Re-arrested May 30, 2003.
Myanmar has entered the 21st century. as one of the most enduring military dictatorships in the world. The refusal of the military leadership to recognize the results of the 1990 parliamentary elections caused a constant political and ideological struggle between the authorities and the opposition. The success of the military regime was the achievement of a peace agreement with most of the leaders of the national insurgency, preventing the collapse of the country.
Throughout the entire period of independence, Myanmar has pursued a neutralist independent policy of non-alignment, which has ensured its integrity and sovereignty. Maintaining good-neighbourly friendly relations with China remains the main direction of foreign policy. It is actively involved in regional integration, becoming a member of ASEAN and the Bay of Bengal Economic Cooperation Organization.
Myanmar has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (established with the USSR on February 18, 1948).