State Structure and Political System of Pakistan
Pakistan is a federal parliamentary republic with strong presidential power. Islam is the state religion. The constitution was adopted on April 12, 1973 and entered into force on August 14, 1973. Check equzhou for political system of Pakistan.
The subjects of the federation are four provinces: Punjab (55.6% of all residents of the country), Sindh (23.0%), North-West Frontier Province – NWFP (13.4%), Balochistan (5.0%), located in the north in the west, the tribal areas controlled by the center are the UCRP (2.4%) and the Islamabad metropolitan area (0.6%).
The largest cities (1998 census, million people): Karachi (9.3) – the administrative center of Sindh, the main trade, economic and financial center, the sea gate of the country; Lahore (5) – the center of the Punjab, the most important economic, scientific and cultural center; Faisalabad (Punjab) (c. 2); Rawalpindi (Punjab) (1.4); Hyderabad (Sindh) (1.2); Peshawar (ca. 1), center of the NWFP; Quetta (0.7) the administrative center of Balochistan; Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan, together with Rawalpindi forms an agglomeration, a leading scientific and educational center.
The main levers of power are concentrated in the hands of the president. The state structure is highly centralized, but leaves room for the protection of the rights of the subjects of the federation. The exclusive competence of the center includes the most important issues, such as defense, foreign relations, money circulation, planning, foreign trade, etc. There is a list of problems that represent the joint competence of the center and the provinces; this includes law enforcement, property transfer, labor conflicts, ecology, etc. Issues not included in both lists (“residual powers”) are assigned to the provinces.
The highest body of legislative power is the parliament. It consists of two chambers: the lower (National Assembly) and the upper (Senate). In the National Assembly (342 deputies), all subjects of the federation are represented in proportion to the population; in the Senate (100 parliamentarians), all provinces are equally represented. The term of the lower chamber is 5 years, the upper one is renewed by half every 3 years. The bill is submitted to any chamber, the financial one only to the lower one. To pass an amendment to the Constitution, it is necessary that at least 2/3 of the members of both chambers vote for it.
The supreme body of executive power is the federal government. Its head is the Prime Minister. The government is collectively responsible to the National Assembly.
The head of state is the president. He is the supreme commander, makes appointments to many senior government posts: the prime minister and members of the government, provincial governors, members of the Supreme Court of Pakistan and the high courts of the provinces, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, chiefs of staff of the three branches of the military (i.e. their commanders ), etc. All laws adopted by the parliament (except for financial ones) require the sanction of the president. A presidential veto may be overridden by a repeat vote of the majority of deputies at a joint session of the chambers. The President has the right to dissolve the National Assembly, dismiss the Prime Minister and the entire government. The President has the power to declare a state of emergency in the country if, in his opinion, the security of Pakistan is threatened by war, external aggression or internal unrest. Check homeagerly for democracy and human rights of Pakistan.
At the first sitting after the elections, the National Assembly elects the speaker and his deputy. The speaker directs the work of the chamber, monitors compliance with the regulations. He convenes sessions of the chamber at the request of at least 1/4 of the deputies. The Chairman of the Senate and his Deputy are elected for 3 years at the first meeting of the Chamber after its 50% renewal. The functions of the leaders of the Senate are similar to those of their counterparts from the National Assembly. In the event of the temporary absence of the President, his duties are performed by the Chairman of the Senate, and if this is not possible for any reason, then the duties of the President are assigned to the Speaker of the National Assembly.
The head of the supreme body of executive power is the Prime Minister. He is appointed by the president on the condition that he has the confidence of the majority of deputies and is a Muslim. On the advice of the prime minister, the president appoints members of the government and dismisses them. The Prime Minister ex officio heads the National Economic Council and the Council of Common Interest, created to coordinate the interests of the center and provinces.
In Pakistan, general, direct, secret elections are established according to the majority system of relative majority. To elect members of parliament and legislative assemblies of the provinces, districts approximately equal in population are created in the country, from each of which one deputy passes. The right to vote is granted to citizens over the age of 18.
Of the total members of the National Assembly, 272 are directly elected, while 60 seats are reserved for women and 10 for religious minorities. These seats are distributed among the parties that entered the parliament in accordance with the votes they received in the elections and overcame the 5% electoral barrier. Provincial legislatures are also formed.
Each province sends 22 people to the Senate, who are elected by local legislative assemblies; 4 senators from the metropolitan area are elected by the National Assembly and 8 members from the UCRP are elected by 12 deputies of the lower house – representatives of these areas.
The president of the country is elected by a majority vote of the members of the electoral college, consisting of deputies from both houses of parliament and provincial legislatures. He must be a Muslim.
Prominent State Officials. Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948), honorary title Qaid-i-Azam (Great Leader). Leader of the movement for the formation of an independent Pakistan. First head (governor-general) of Pakistan. It remains an unquestioned authority in the country. Ali Khan Liaqat (1895-1951). First Prime Minister of Pakistan. After the death of Jinnah, he became the de facto leader of the country. Killed October 16, 1951. Muhammad Ayub Khan (1907-74). General (from 1959 – field marshal), the first Pakistani – commander of the national army. Leader of the military regime in Pakistan (October 1958 – June 1962). Elected president in 1960, re-elected in 1965. Resigned in March 1969. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (1928-79). In 1958-66 he held various ministerial posts. In 1967 he founded the Pakistan People’s Party. He served as president (December 1971 – August 1973) and prime minister (August 1973 – June 1977). Executed in April 1979. Benazir Bhutto (b. 1954). Daughter Z.A. Bhutto. The first woman in Pakistan and throughout the Muslim world to become prime minister (December 1988). She held this post until August 1990 and from October 1993 to November 1996. Pervez Musharraf (b. 1943). Military personnel, general. In 1998, he was appointed to the highest post of chief of staff in the Pakistani army. On October 12, 1999, he led a bloodless military coup and assumed the duties of chief executive. June 20, 2001 took over as president. Following a referendum in April 2002, his presidential powers were extended for 5 years. became Prime Minister (December 1988). She held this post until August 1990 and from October 1993 to November 1996. Pervez Musharraf (b. 1943). Military personnel, general. In 1998, he was appointed to the highest post of chief of staff in the Pakistani army. On October 12, 1999, he led a bloodless military coup and assumed the duties of chief executive. June 20, 2001 took over as president. Following a referendum in April 2002, his presidential powers were extended for 5 years. became Prime Minister (December 1988). She held this post until August 1990 and from October 1993 to November 1996. Pervez Musharraf (b. 1943). Military personnel, general. In 1998, he was appointed to the highest post of chief of staff in the Pakistani army. On October 12, 1999, he led a bloodless military coup and assumed the duties of chief executive. June 20, 2001 took over as president. Following a referendum in April 2002, his presidential powers were extended for 5 years.
The highest official in the province is the governor, who is appointed and removed by the president. The governor appoints the chief minister (head of the cabinet), members of the government, and other officials; he has the right of suspensive veto over all legislative acts, except for financial ones. In his activities, the governor is guided by the advice of the government.
The provincial legislature is the Provincial Assembly, elected by the people for a five-year term. At the first meeting after the elections, the deputies elect the speaker and his deputy, who manage the current work of the meeting. Executive power in the province is exercised by the government, which is headed by the chief minister. The governor appoints to this post a deputy who has the confidence of the majority of the members of the Assembly. The governor can fire the chief minister and the entire government.
The provinces are divided into districts (districts), districts (tahsils) and volosts. The lower state body is appointed by the higher one and is subordinate to it. At all these levels, there are self-government bodies elected by the population for 5 years. The last time elections were held in 2001.
The Islamabad metropolitan area is under the direct control of the central authorities. UCRP consists of 7 agencies. In each of them, all administrative and economic affairs are managed by a political agent appointed by the central government.
Pakistan has a multi-party system. 72 political parties participated in the October 10, 2002 elections. Among them, the oldest is the Pakistan Muslim League (established in 1906). After the military came to power in October 1999, the party split into two parts. One of them bears the name of “Qaid-i-Azama” M.A. Jinn, PML(KA). Supports General P. Musharraf. Another part of it remained loyal to the last leader of the united party, Nawaz Sharif. The party is called PML(N). The Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) is also nationwide. The People’s National Party (PNP, founded in 1986) has a strong position in the NWFP. Muttahid Qaumi Movement (United National Movement, established in 1982) is a political party of Muhajirs (refugees from India and their descendants). Enjoys the support of Muhajirs in the southern regions of Sindh, primarily in Karachi. The fundamentalist parties Jamaat-i Islami (Islamic Society, established in 1941), Jamiat-i-ulama-i Islam (Society of Islamic Theologians, established in 1941) and others. and amal (Joint Action Forum). In the October 2002 general election, the alliance came third in the National Assembly behind the PML (KA) and the PPP, and second in the Senate.
The leading organization of business circles is the Federation of Pakistani Chambers of Commerce and Industry (established in 1949). Under its auspices are regional chambers of commerce and industry, as well as industry unions of entrepreneurs and manufacturers. The federation coordinates the activities of various groups of businessmen, establishes business relations with foreign entrepreneurs, and promotes the growth of investments.
Trade unions play an important role in public life. The oldest trade union center is the Pakistan Trade Union Federation. There are also the Pakistan National Federation of Trade Unions, the Pakistan National Workers’ Federation, and the United Workers’ Federation. The leading peasant organizations are the Workers’ and Peasants’ Party and the Committee of Sharecroppers of Sindh.
Youth organizations were formed under the influence of political parties. The largest is Islami Jamaat-i Tulaba (the youth branch of the Jamaat-i Islami party). There are women’s organizations, the largest being the All Pakistan Women’s Association.
Pakistan’s domestic policy is aimed at strengthening the unity of society and the state, combating ethno-national separatism and religious sectarianism. Measures are being taken to curb Islamic extremism and terrorism. Constitutional and parliamentary institutions are being strengthened, and efforts are being made to democratize political life.
The foreign policy of Pakistan sets the task of creating favorable external conditions for the development of the country, strengthening national security, attracting investments, developing cooperation with many countries of the world. Pakistan actively participates in the activities of the UN, its peacekeeping operations, and in the antiterrorist campaign in Afghanistan. Develops relations with the USA and other Western countries. Extensive contacts exist between Pakistan and China. Prominent Pakistani statesmen have repeatedly visited the Russian Federation. On February 4-6, 2003, the visit of President P. Musharraf took place, which resulted in the signing of important agreements between the two countries. The tension of Pakistani-Indian relations, the unresolved Kashmir issue has repeatedly led these countries to armed conflicts.
The armed forces are directly led by the chiefs of staff of the army (ground forces), the air force, and the navy. Their work is coordinated by the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The staffing of the Armed Forces is carried out on a voluntary basis. Officers are trained in military colleges and schools.
Regular aircraft number 620 thousand people. The ground forces are the main branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces. Their number is 550 thousand people. The Armed Forces include infantry, armored, artillery formations, engineering units, air defense units, operational-tactical missiles. There are 45,000 people in the Air Force; There are 366 combat aircraft in service, as well as training aircraft, search and rescue service helicopters, and anti-aircraft missile systems. The number of the Navy – 25 thousand people; it consists of 11 submarines, 8 frigates, 10 combat boats, marines.
Pakistan has nuclear weapons (according to various sources, from 25 to 40 charges) and their carriers, primarily medium and short-range missiles.
Pakistan has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (established with the USSR on May 1, 1948).