State Structure and Political System of Philippines
The Philippines is a democratic unitary state, a republic with a presidential form of government. The Constitution adopted in 1987 is in force. Administratively, the Philippines is divided into provinces (73), united in 17 administrative and economic regions, municipalities, barangays (rural districts). Large provinces: Pampanga, Rizal, Quezon, Ilocos (North and South), Cebu, Iloilo, Maguindanao, etc. Large cities: Greater Manila, Davao, Cebu, Iloilo, etc. Check equzhou for political system of Philippines.
The principles of public administration are based on the election of government bodies and the separation of its branches – legislative, executive, judicial. The highest body of legislative power is the bicameral Congress. The upper house – the Senate (24 senators aged at least 35 years), is elected for 6 years with by-elections every 3 years and the right to re-election for a second term. The head of the upper house is the president of the senate, who is elected by the senators. The House of Representatives (headed by the speaker) is elected for 3 years, consisting of no more than 250 deputies (from the age of 25) with the right to re-election for 3 terms. The President of the Philippines has the supreme executive power (the age for election is not younger than 40 years, residence in the Philippines for at least 10 years before the election). The President (and together with him the Vice President) is elected for 6 years without the right to re-election for a second term. At the same time, he is the head of state, government (forms a cabinet responsible to him), supreme commander. The president cannot dissolve parliament, but has the power of veto when bills pass through congress. In extreme situations, the president has the right to declare a state of emergency for a period limited by Congress. Check homeagerly for democracy and human rights of Philippines.
The Philippines has universal suffrage for all citizens from the age of 18. The electoral system of the Philippines is of a mixed type, including elements of the majoritarian (election of the president – vice president, as well as senators by direct secret ballot of the all-Philippine electorate) and a modified proportional system. Elements of the latter are present in elections to the lower house (the principle of proportional representation in voting by constituencies and party lists). Preservation in the political system of the Philippines stereotypes of traditional political culture (clan in politics, the system of paternalistic vertical ties, etc.) has a negative impact on the electoral system. The Philippines is among the developing countries with a consistently high rate of electoral violations – the practice of vote trading,
Prominent presidents: M. Quezon (1935–44), President of the Autonomous Philippines, known for the unique phenomenon of mass popularity, combined with a tough style of government, pro-Americanism, and anti-communism; F. Marcos (1965-86), who failed the modernization program, but deserves attention by reorienting the unilateral pro-American foreign policy of the Philippines towards expanding cooperation and partnership with Asian states; F. Ramos (1992-98), pragmatist and intellectual who achieved success in economic modernization and stabilization of society without breaking democratic structures and legal orders.
Local authorities – provincial governors, city mayors, provincial legislative assemblies, municipal councils – are formed on the basis of the same system of elections as the highest authorities. The principles of decentralized management have been introduced locally, the authorities have been given broad powers in the field of budgetary, tax policy, etc. Their activities are controlled by the congress (a source of corruption among both congressmen and local leaders).
The Philippines is characterized by an unformed multi-party system, which includes fragile conglomerates of parties of the traditional type (associations around leaders, not programs). The two leading parties in the past – the Nationalists (founded in 1907) and the Liberal (founded in 1946) – could not consolidate after being dispersed during the years of authoritarianism, at present they are weak formations and factions in both pro-government and opposition coalitions and blocs. The pro-presidential coalition “Lakas” (“Power of the people”) unites several parties and blocs, incl. such as the National Union of Christian Democrats, the Struggle for Philippine Democracy, the Provincial Development Party, and others. The opponents of Lacas are the Mass Party of ex-president Estrada, the People’s Reform Party, and others. The left flank of the opposition is the legal “Party of Workers” (founded in 2001) with a program of peaceful forms of struggle for the interests of workers. Left radical illegal, operating from con. 1960s Communist Party of the Philippines (left), leads the armed guerrilla of the “New People’s Army” and is part of the “National Democratic Front”.
Leading business organizations: Philippine Chambers of Industry and Commerce; Federation of Philippine-Chinese Chambers of Commerce and Industry.
Active elements of civil society are non-governmental organizations (NGOs), their development is encouraged by the state, in particular, in the form of financial support. The fields of activity of NGOs are environmental protection, work to improve the life of peasants, etc. Participate in politics: in elections and as organizers of mass peaceful demonstrations with a pro- and anti-government orientation. Anti-globalization organizations are in the process of formation, they adhere to the tactics of non-violent actions. Major NGOs in the Philippines: Village Transformation Movement, Green Forum, etc.
The main tasks in the field of domestic policy of the Philippines are the implementation of economic modernization as the basis for stabilizing society; consolidation of the political elite around the presidential reform program, suppression of the opposition, especially its extremist movements. None of these tasks are performed. Criticism of President Arroyo for indecision in the fight against corruption, kronism, inability to solve the problem of poverty and eliminate the hotbed of violence in the Muslim South comes not only from her opponents, but also from her inner circle (representatives of the middle class, the leadership of the Catholic Church, the military elite). The internal political state of the Philippines remains uncertain and unstable.