State Structure and Political System of Syria
Syria is a republic. The legal foundations of the state system are established by the Constitution, approved in the course of a popular referendum and entered into force on March 13, 1973. Check equzhou for political system of Syria.
Administratively, the country is divided into 14 provinces (governances): Hasaka, Latakia, Quneitra, Raqqa, Suwayda, Dara, Deir ez-Zor, Damascus, Aleppo, Hama, Homs, Idlib, Tartus, Damascus (region). The largest cities (thousand people): Damascus, Aleppo (1582.9), Homs (540.1), Latakia (311.8), Hama (264.3), etc.
The highest body of legislative power is the unicameral People’s Council (Parliament). The head of the People’s Council is Mohammed Naji Otri. The highest body of executive power is the Council of Ministers (government). Chairman of the Council of Ministers – Mustafa Miro. The head of state is the president, since July 17, 2000 Bashar al-Assad.
According to the Basic Law, the deputies of the People’s Council are elected for a term of 4 years by universal, direct and equal elections by secret ballot.
The central place in the state mechanism of Syria is occupied by the president of the republic, who is actually endowed with decisive powers. A candidate for this position is nominated by the People’s Council at the suggestion of the Regional leadership of the PASV, after which the issue is submitted to a nationwide referendum. The candidate who receives the support of the majority of those who voted becomes president. The President appoints the Chairman of the Council of Ministers, ministers and their deputies, accepts their resignation, and dismisses them from office.
An outstanding statesman and political figure, President Hafez al-Assad, who headed the state for almost 30 years, is known far beyond the borders of Syria. He belonged to the Alawites, the highest religious and political stratum of Muslim societies, descended from Ali ibn Abu Talib. His contribution to the transformation of the country into a full-fledged and equal partner in international relations is exceptionally great. The era of the rule of President Assad was characterized by stability, achievements covering various spheres of life in modern Syria. President Assad has made a great contribution to strengthening Arab unity. In the context of global political changes that have taken place in the world, Assad realized the need to find peaceful ways to resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict and opted for dialogue with the Israelis. Check homeagerly for democracy and human rights of Syria.
The administrative-territorial structure of Syria includes governorates (provinces), Damascus is singled out separately, regions (mantyks), districts (nakhis), villages (the smallest administrative unit) and rural agglomerations, including several villages with a total population of at least 5 thousand people. All these administrative-territorial units enjoy the rights of a legal entity, and local people’s councils are created in them. The regions and districts that are part of the governorates, as well as the quarters into which cities and towns are divided, do not enjoy such rights, and councils are not created on their territory. Local people’s councils at all levels are formed through direct elections by the residents of the respective administrative-territorial units. The preparation and implementation of the decisions taken by each local council are entrusted to its executive committee, which is formed for a period of 2 years. The leading role in the work of local people’s councils and their executive committees belongs to their chairmen. In the governorate, these functions are performed by the governor (governor), appointed by the president of the republic.
Party system: Arab Socialist Renaissance Party (PASV – Baath) – the ruling party, emerged in 1947; received its current name in 1952 after the merger of the Arab Renaissance Party with the Arab Socialist Party; Arab Socialist Union (ASS); Socialist Unionist Party (PSU); Movement of Arab Socialists (DAS); Syrian Communist Party (SKP). All of them are members of the National Progressive Front (PNF).
Leading business organizations are represented mainly by national government organizations. Damascus is home to the Federation of Syrian Chambers of Commerce. In addition, there are chambers of commerce in Damascus, Aleppo, Latakia. There is a chamber of commerce and industry in Hama, and chambers of industry in Aleppo and Damascus.
Trade unions play a prominent role in the economic and socio-political life of the country. In 1938, the leading center of the trade unions was established in the form of the General Federation of Syrian Workers’ Unions (VFRPS). The efforts of the trade unions are concentrated on strengthening their influence as much as possible in all sections of the Syrian workers, ensuring the implementation of the social and economic policy of the ruling party and its approach to the problem of the labor and trade union movement. There are also independent trade unions of doctors, lawyers, agronomists, engineers, etc., which are not part of the VFRPS structure. Other public organizations include the General Federation of Syrian Women (established in 1967), the Youth Union of the Revolution (1968), the National Union of Students of Syria (1963), and the Baath Pioneers organization (1974).
Domestic policy is aimed at stabilizing the economic situation in the country, establishing social peace and creating prerequisites for the formation of the foundations of civil society. The main goals of foreign policy are: peaceful resolution of the Middle East conflict and ensuring security in the region, promoting the creation of a Palestinian state, peaceful coexistence with other countries.
The total number of the Armed Forces is 320 thousand people, incl. 215 thousand people are part of the air defense formations, 60 thousand – in the Naval and 5 thousand – in the Air Force. The number of reservists – 500 thousand people.
Syria has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (diplomatic relations between Syria and the USSR were first established on June 21–29, 1944; in 1955 the Mission was transformed into the Embassy of the USSR).