State Structure and Political System of Turkmenistan
The Constitution of 1992 is in force. Turkmenistan is a democratic legal secular state. The form of government is a presidential republic. Check equzhou for political system of Turkmenistan.
Administrative division of Turkmenistan: five velayats (districts): Ahal (center – Ashgabat city), Balkan (center – Nebitdag city), Dashkhovuz (center – Dashkhovuz city, formerly Tashauz), Lebap (center – Cherdzhev city, formerly. Chardzhou) and Mary (the center is the city of Mary), which include 46 etraps and 528 gengeshliks.
The largest cities (thousand people): Ashgabat, Cherdzhev (164), Dashkhovuz (114), Mary (94), Nebitdag (89), Turkmenbashi (64).
The highest official of Turkmenistan, the head of state and executive power is the President of Turkmenistan. He heads the cabinet of ministers – the government of Turkmenistan. According to the Constitution, there are two parliamentary institutions: the unicameral Khalk Maslakhaty (People’s Council) and the unicameral Mejlis (parliament). The highest body of legislative power, the Mejlis, includes 50 deputies elected on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot. The term of office of the deputies of the Mejlis is 5 years. The work of the Mejlis is carried out in the form of sessions held in the form of meetings, as well as meetings of the Presidium of the Mejlis, committees and commissions of the Mejlis. The Mejlis meets annually in autumn and spring sessions. The Halk Maslakhaty is the highest representative body of the people’s power. Members include: President; deputies of the Mejlis; people’s representatives (halk vekilleri), elected by the people one by one from each etrap (district) and city equivalent to an etrap; Chairman of the Supreme Court, Prosecutor General, members of the Cabinet of Ministers, khyakims of velayats and the city of Ashgabat, archins of cities, as well as settlements that are the administrative centers of velayats and etraps. This body discusses the activities of the state – the ratification of treaties, the interpretation of the Constitution, foreign policy. Collected rarely. interpretation of the Constitution, foreign policy. Collected rarely. interpretation of the Constitution, foreign policy. Collected rarely.
The third body – the Council of Elders, which can be attributed to the structure of legislative power, meets as needed and consists of the leaders of the Turkmen tribes and heads of regional administrations. Check homeagerly for democracy and human rights of Turkmenistan.
The supreme body of executive power, the Cabinet of Ministers, manages all bodies of executive power and administration and ensures their coordinated activities. It is composed of vice-presidents and ministers. The President has the right to include in the Cabinet of Ministers the heads of other central government bodies and officials exercising local executive power.
Executive power in velayats, cities and etraps is exercised by khyakims, who are the representatives of the president in the field. In accordance with the law of Turkmenistan “On khyakims”, they are personally responsible to the president for providing the population with goods and services (including transport and healthcare services) that create a decent standard of living.
In accordance with the Constitution of Turkmenistan, the representative body of people’s power in the territory of a city in an etrap, township and village, exercising the functions of local self-government, are gengeshes – the primary link in the chain of relations between the state and the individual. Gengeshes are elected on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot for a period of 5 years. From among their members, the members of the gengeshi elect by a simple majority of votes the archin, who directs the work of the gengeshi and is accountable to him.
Since the founding of the Republic of Turkmenistan, S. Niyazov, unanimously elected to this post, has been in office as president. On December 28, 1999, the Halk Maslakhaty of Turkmenistan decided to grant the President of Turkmenistan the right to exercise his powers for an unlimited period.
The main ruling party of Turkmenistan is the Democratic Party of Turkmenistan, led by S. Niyazov. Formally, opposition parties are illegal. There is information about the creation in 1992 of the Agrarian Party of Turkmenistan. Its tasks included protecting the interests of peasants, farmers and agricultural workers, as well as the rural intelligentsia (doctors, veterinarians, teachers, engineers), creating a free economy, defending the rights of peasants to cultivated land and their inheritance. This is the only opposition party in the country is quite passive.
The activities of the Agzibirlik (Unity) movement and the Party for Democratic Development were banned. The Islamic Renaissance Party and the conservative Islamic Political Party are also banned.
Public organizations in Turkmenistan are created in accordance with the Constitution and the law “On Public Associations in Turkmenistan”. Apart from the Democratic Party of Turkmenistan, they operate in the country. National Center of Trade Unions, Magtymguly Youth Union, Humanitarian Association of World Turkmens, etc.
Socio-political organizations that speak from oppositional points of view, operate mainly underground or abroad.
The activities of the People’s Democratic Movement of Turkmenistan (NDDT) (the leader of the movement is Boris Shikhmuradov) and the socio-political movement “Vatan” are known.
Features of the internal political structure of the Turkmen society are rooted in the Middle Ages. Tribal and tribal ties have always played an important role in Turkmenistan. The largest tribes are: Teke (Tekins), Yemut (Yomuts), Ersari, Saryks, Salyrs, Goklen, etc. The traditionally established system of power provides for maintaining a balance between the elite of the main territorial and tribal clans.
In foreign policy, Turkmenistan follows the principle of neutrality and non-interference in the internal affairs of other states.
After the collapse of the USSR, the material and technical means left over from the Soviet Army became the basic basis of the new army. This mainly concerned armored vehicles, artillery, combat aircraft and helicopters, as well as air defense systems. There are 50,000 servicemen in Turkmenistan. The number of armored vehicles (tanks, infantry fighting vehicles, armored personnel carriers) is approximately 2300 units. In the Ground Forces: 4 motorized rifle divisions, an artillery brigade and 2 air defense brigades; in service – about 700 T-32 tanks, at least 1.5 thousand infantry fighting vehicles and armored personnel carriers. Turkmenistan has 520 units. military aviation. In the Air Force: 4 air regiments of 24 MiG-29 fighters and MiG-25 interceptors, up to 300 obsolete MiG-23 bombers and 100 Su-17 and Su-25 attack aircraft. Weapons are purchased mainly in the CIS countries, in particular from Ukraine and Belarus. Military spending in dollar terms – 90 million (1999).
Diplomatic relations between the Russian Federation and Turkmenistan were established on April 8, 1992. A Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation was concluded (July 31, 1992). Signed ca. 60 agreements in various fields.