State Structure and Political System of Yemen
Yemen is a republic. The Constitution is in force in 1991, as amended in 1994, 2001. Check equzhou for political system of Yemen.
The territory of the country is divided into 19 provinces (governors): Abyan, Aden, Az-Zali, Al-Bayza, Al-Khodeida, Al-Jaf, Al-Mahra, Al-Mahwit, Amran, Zamar, Hadhramaut, Hajja, Ebb, Lahj, Maarib, Sana, Shabwa, Taiz, Hegge.
The largest cities: Sana’a, Aden, Hodeidah, Taiz.
A new constitutional amendment in 2001 created a bicameral legislature in the country. It consists of the Advisory Council (Shura), which includes 111 members appointed by the president, and the House of Representatives (deputies) – 301 members, who are directly elected for a term of 5 years. The highest legislative body is the Advisory Council. It is headed by Abdal-Aziz abd al-Ghani. The House of Deputies is headed by Abdullah bin Hussein al-Ahmar.
The head of state is President Marshal Ali Abdullah Saleh (as President of the United Yemen since May 21, 1990). The head of government is Prime Minister Abd al-Qadir Ba Jamal (since April 4, 2001).
The president is directly elected for a term of 7 years, the prime minister and his deputies are appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister.
Prominent statesmen: Ibrahim Mohammed al-Mahdi was the President of North Yemen – the Yemeni Arab Republic; Chairman of the Presidential Council of South Yemen – NDRY – member of the National Front Salem Rubey Ali (both were killed in 1978).
Executive and legislative power of administrative units. Each province is headed by a governor appointed by the president. He holds the highest executive power in the province. The governor is personally responsible for the implementation in the province of all laws, decrees and orders of the central authorities. In his activities, he relies on the provincial council (majlisal-mahalla), of which he is the chairman, and the authorities in the mudiriyas and markazs, into which the province is divided. The Provincial Council promotes, within its competence, the implementation of the general state policy and deals with the economic, social and cultural development of the province.
The main representative of state power in the Mudirias is the Mudiram. He is appointed by the president and performs the same functions as the governor, only within the mudiriya. In his activities, he relies on the advice of the Mudiria and assistants, who are representatives of the authorities in the marcazas. The provincial councils and authorities in the Mudirias and Markazs are elected by the population. In February 2001, the first elections to local authorities were held, the purpose of which was to decentralize power in the country. Check homeagerly for democracy and human rights of Yemen.
There are 12 political parties in Yemen, of which the most famous are: the General People’s Congress (GPC), headed by President A.A. Saleh, the Yemeni Reform Association, the Yemeni Socialist Party, the Unionist People’s Liberation Party, the National Arab Socialist Baath Party.
Leading business organizations are represented mainly by state organizations, corporations and companies, in which state, private, and in some cases foreign capital is present in various proportions. The most significant of them are: Foreign Trade Corporation, General Board for Agricultural Research, National Corporation for Foreign Trade, National Corporation for Home Trade, Yemen Co. for Industry and Commerce, General Board for Agricultural Development, etc. There is a Federation of Chambers of Commerce, chambers of commerce in Hodeida, Taiz, a chamber of commerce and industry in Sana’a. The largest companies are Khalil Said (in the food industry), Al-Massa al-Harjiya lil-Khubub (bakery), Shirka al-watania li-t tuk va-s-sijar (tobacco), etc.
Trade unions play a prominent role in economic and socio-political life. The main trade union body is Ittihad Nakabat al-umma al-yemeniya. At the same time, there are branch trade union associations: economists, engineers, agricultural workers, writers, etc. The social structure is characterized by the presence of layers and groups of an intermediate type of society, from traditional to modern, that have not yet taken shape. There is a process of formation of such social groups as entrepreneurs, workers, intelligentsia, etc.
Domestic policy is aimed at creating an economy that meets modern realities, in particular the process of globalization, by investing income from oil and gas exports in the manufacturing sector, creating new jobs, and improving the living conditions of the indigenous population.
The foreign policy is based on the principles of peaceful coexistence with various states, strengthening of all-Arab unity and cooperation.
The armed forces of Yemen were formed by the merger of the armies of the YAR and the PDRY, which really began only after the end of the civil war between the northern and southern parts of the country in 1994. In 1998, the Yemeni Armed Forces numbered 66.3 thousand people, incl. (in thousand people): Ground forces – 61; Air Force – 3.5; Navy – 1.8. The number of reservists is 40 thousand people. In addition, there were detachments of the Ministry of National Security (50 thousand people) and armed tribal formations (20 thousand people) in the country.
Yemen has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation. The first treaty of friendship and trade between the USSR and Yemen was concluded in 1928. Diplomatic relations were established in 1955. The USSR embassy in the YAR (in the city of Sana’a) was opened in 1962.