Shandong [ ʃ an-], Shantung, Shantung [ ʃ -], province on the northeast coast of China, 153,300 km 2, (2010) 95.8 million residents (in terms of population, Shandong ranks second among all provinces in the country); The capital is Jinan. Shandong includes the bay-rich Shandong peninsula (Chinese Shandong Bandao), which separates Bo Hai Bay (in the north) from the Yellow Sea. The peninsula is mainly determined by plains and depressions, only in places it is occupied by higher mountainous areas (Laoshan, up to 1,087 m above sea level). The west lies in the area of the alluvial plain of the lower Hwangho (part of the Great Plain). In the central part, the Shandong Mountains, consisting of several mountain ranges, rise up with the Tai Shan (1,545 m above sea level; UNESCO World Cultural and Natural Heritage), the most important of the five sacred mountains in China. There is a subtropical monsoon climate with rainy, hot summers and sunny, dry winters. Favorable natural conditions and rich mineral resources led to the development of extensive agriculture (especially after the constant floods of the Hwangho could be averted by its containment and regulation) and industry, which has the greater share of gross production. Wheat, corn, beans, millet, peanuts, potatoes, tobacco, cotton, wine and fruit are grown. The city of Shouguang, about 50 km northwest of Weifeng, is the center of vegetable production (hillside greenhouses) in the province. Sericulture, poultry and livestock farming, as well as inland and deep-sea fishing play an important role. The extraction of coal (in the southwest around Yanzhou, on the Shandong peninsula and near Anhui), crude oil (Shengli field off the coast in Bo Hai), iron ore (near Zibo and Laiwu), gold (near Yantai) and bauxite are of great importance (at Zibo and Zaozhuang), graphite (Laixi) and salt extraction. In addition to the food, chemical and textile industries (cotton processing), the iron and steel industry emerged as a supplier for machine tools, motor vehicles, locomotives and wagons as well as oil processing. Heavy industry still accounts for two thirds of the province’s total industrial production. Shandong has developed into a dynamic economic center in recent years with a high proportion of foreign direct investment made in China. The main industrial centers are Tsingtau, Jinan, Zibo, Dezhou and Weifang. The cities of Tsingtau and Yantai, which are open to foreign investments from 1984 onwards, with the associated economic development zones Xuejiadao and Fuleishan also have the most important ocean ports. For inland shipping, theImportant canal in the west. The railway network was expanded as early as 1959, and the Tsingtau – Jinan motorway was completed in 1993.
According to areacodesexplorer, Jinan [d ʒ -], Tsinan, is the capital of Shandong Province, China, near the right bank of the Lower Hwangho, 6.81 million residents in the entire administrative area, of which 4.39 million people in the city districts; Shandong University (founded in 1926; merged with Shandong Medical School and Technical University since 2001), technical colleges, tobacco research institute; Provincial Museum. In addition to the long-established textile and food industry, Jinan also has the iron and steel industry as well as machine tool, agricultural machinery and automobile manufacturing companies, as well as the chemical industry; Railway junction, inland, airport.
In the city (especially in the old temple district) and in the surrounding area there are numerous sources, some of them artfully composed; so z. B. the spring of the black tiger (Heihu Quan), which is framed in a group of tigers carved from black rock, from whose jaws it flows. The five dragon pond (Wulongtan) is fed by five sources. In the Lake of the Great Light (Daming Hu) the water from some springs in the area gathers. – In the south of the city lies the Thousand Buddha Hill (Qianfo Shan), whose sculptural decorations from the time of the Suidynasty were partially destroyed during the Cultural Revolution. – 40 km south of Shentong Monastery from the early 4th century with numerous pagodas (including the four-gate pagoda Simen Ta, 544), 80 km south-east of Lingyan Si Monastery from the time of the Northern Weid Dynasty (386-534);
Jinan has been the provincial capital since the Ming Period (1368–1644). It owes its economic rise to the construction of the Jinan – Tsingtau railway in 1904 and the opening to foreign trade in 1906.
Tai Shan [- ʃ a ː n], Taishan, T’aishan, summit in the central part of the Shandong Peninsula, China, in the eastern Shandong Mountains, 1,545 m above sea level;the most important of the five sacred mountains of China; is considered to be animated and connected with the forces of heaven (from the 2nd century BC imperial heavenly sacrifice; since the 7th century belief in the return of souls to Tai Shan and in a judgment of the dead can be demonstrated); at the foot of Tai Shan the Taishan Temple; to the side of the 9 km long path with over 6,000 steps to the topmost summit, numerous Daoist temples, graves, gates of honor and steles; on the summit of the temple of the “Princess of the Azure Clouds” (Bixia Si) from the Northern Song Period (960–1279) and the “Southern Gate of Heaven” (Nantian Men). The densely forested mountain region with a diverse flora and fauna has been declared a world cultural and natural heritage site by UNESCO.