Middle East Overview
The Middle East is a region of the globe that spans some countries in Asia and one in Africa. It has a population of about 270 million people, most of whom are Arabs. According to Countryaah.com, this region of Middle East encompasses some capital cities and major cities such as Cairo (Egypt), Istanbul (Turkey), Ankara (Turkey), Tehran (Iran), Baghdad (Iraq), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) and Dubai (United Arab Emirates). There, various ancient populations developed, such as the Mesopotamians and the Egyptians. Its history has since been filled with alliances and conflicts that generated this region. Note that part of Turkey is located in Europe, being the only Middle Eastern country on this continent.
There are over ten countries in the western part of Asia, known as Middle East. Some of them are:
Oman – Middle East
Oman is a country in Asia. The capital of the country is Muscat. About 4.4 million Omanis and Omanis of other nationalities live in Oman. The official language is Arabic. Oman covers an area of around 310,000 km² and is therefore somewhat larger than Italy. Neighboring countries are Saudi Arabia, Yemen and the United Arab Emirates.
Lebanon – Middle East
Lebanon, the Switzerland of the Middle East, is a country in Asia. The capital is Beirut. Around 6.0 million Lebanese, Lebanese people of other nationalities, live in Lebanon. Lebanon is one of the most densely populated regions in the world. The official language is Arabic. Lebanon covers an area of around 10,000 km² and is about four times the size of Luxembourg. Neighboring countries are Syria and Israel.
Yemen – Middle East
Yemen, Arabia felix, is a country in Asia. The capital is Sanaa. Approximately 28 million Yemenis and Yemenis of other nationalities live in Yemen. The official language is Arabic. Yemen covers an area of around 528,000 km² and is therefore slightly larger than Spain. The highest mountain in Yemen is the Jabal an-Nabi Shuʿaib with 3,760 meters. Neighboring countries are Saudi Arabia and Oman.
Jordan – Middle East
Jordan is a country in Asia. The capital of the country is Amman. Around 9.5 million Jordanians live in Jordan. The official language is Arabic. Jordan covers an area of around 89,000 km² and is therefore somewhat larger than the Republic of Austria. Neighboring countries are Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Israel and the Palestinian Territories.
The predominant climates in the Middle East are semiarid and desert. Both are marked by high temperatures and low rainfall. Thus, it is a very dry region where the relative humidity is low. Two important deserts are located in the region: the Arabian Desert (on the Arabian Peninsula) and the Sahara Desert (in Egypt). In regions where the semi-arid climate is predominant, rainfall is usually slightly higher.
Given the hostile climate, the vegetation in the region is sparse. It is marked by deep rooted plants, some trees, grasses and cacti. These plants have developed ways to survive in this type of environment, retaining water most of the time. Where the semi-arid climate prevails, more vegetation is found at the prairie and steppe sites. On the coast, the vegetation is even more abundant, with the presence of shrubs and trees. This is because the humidity, being near the sea, is higher, which favors the development of more plants.
One of the factors of development of this climate and vegetation present in the Middle East is due to the small number of rivers that cross the region. The main ones are the Tiger and the Euphrates, located in the region known as the Fertile Crescent. In addition to them, the Jordan River and the Nile River are worth mentioning. Having made this observation, it should be noted that water in the region is scarce, which may lead to the development of more conflicts involving this natural resource.
The Middle East has a very strong religious culture. This is because it was there that various religions developed from Christianity, Judaism and Islam. Therefore, the place houses various temples and religious sites such as Mecca and Jerusalem. It is a very diverse region with several ethnicities, the most notable being the Arab. This makes the place a broad cultural complex.
The Middle East region is an important economic center of the world. One of the biggest reasons is the existing oil reserves as well as gems. Saudi Arabia and Iran are the two countries with the largest oil reserves in the world. In addition to these are also oil exporters Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. Approximately 60% of the world reserves of this ore are located here. Although the data show that these reserves generate a lot of profits, much of the population living in the Middle East is poor. That is, this explains that there is a poor distribution of income in the region.
Another sector that has development in the region is the agricultural sector. Animal husbandry and some crops (sugar cane, rice, wheat, etc.) are developed in areas where the soil is most fertile. Finally, tourism is also an activity that drives the economy of these countries, especially Turkey, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Israel.
The city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia has a very expressive Muslim religious tourism every year. In this sense, Jerusalem also stands out as one of the oldest cities in the world and considered sacred to Christians, Jews and Islamists.