Tajikistan Recent History
It is the Republic of Tajiks, with capital Dusanbe, established in 1925 and part of the Soviet Union since the beginning. Before the Russian Revolution and being incorporated into the Union, Tajikistan was almost entirely included in the Bukhara Khanate; only a small fraction was included in the province of Syrdaria.
According to Abbreviationfinder, a purely mountainous country, there are chains such as Pamir, Aliciur and Vachan, which reach remarkable altitudes between 5000 and 6000 meters. For this reason the climate is very varied; intense cold and wind of great violence reign where the higher the altitude. Where it is lower, a certain humidity allows very luxuriant forests.
The population, with a vast majority Tajik majority, has a strong Uzbek component. Main characteristics of this people are tranquility, hospitality and tolerance. Tajiks, unlike the Uzbeks, are simple, love justice, are active and very skilled in business and trade. They are largely Muslim.
Two types of housing are the local characteristics: low brick houses, due to frequent earthquakes, for sedentary people and removable tents for nomads.
Until a few years ago, education was only 5% of the population’s heritage. Over time this percentage has been very high and considerable progress has also been made in the health sector.
After the revolution of 1917 many inhabitants emigrated to Afghanistan and Persia: the population remained in the country was very scarce and prevalent in small villages or in isolated houses, given the state of semi-Madism of most
When Gorbachev’s policy began in the Soviet Union, Tajikistan underwent a rapid transformation of the local government and in 1985 R. Nabiyev, secretary of the Communist Party since 1982, was exonerated. A certain freedom of expression emerged and introduction was allowed of some opposition political parties, while in the people the love for their own traditions returned, repressed until then by the Soviets. In 1989 the Tajik language returned to being the official language of the state; on August 25, 1990 the sovereignty of the country was declared and on September 9, 1991 its independence. And it was called Republic of Tajikistan.
On December 21 of the same year he joined the Community of Independent States; on March 2, 1992 she was admitted to the United Nations and from 1993 she became a member of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
Despite the fact that the new state was tolerant and liberal towards all ethnic and religious communities in the country, including the Islamic one, during 1992/93 a furious civil war raged on one side, in the regions of Dusanbe and Kurgan-Tjube, by an Islamic-democratic coalition, and on the other by a coalition loyal to the old communist party in the districts of Kuljab in the south and Hodzand in the north.
Starting in 1991, the political situation had become increasingly critical due to the conflicts between the Democratic Party of Tajikistan and the Rastohez movement, that is, the Islamic Renaissance Party. These parties had very limited freedom of action because effective power remained in the hands of the men of the old system. When an attempt was made to outlaw the communist party, Nabiyev returned to the top of the state and called multi-party presidential elections, which took place in November 1991 with his victory. The resulting government was mixed because elements of the opposition also appeared among the ministers.
But many ethnic groups caused serious social unrest that led to a real civil war. The dominant characters of this conflict were religious, ethnic and territorial as they faced the industrialized areas of the north, in favor of Nabiyev, and those of the south, bordering Afghanistan, in favor of the democratic and Islamic opposition.
In the north, in the Kuljab, an irregular militia was formed, called the Tajik People’s Front, led by S. Safarov, a highly dubious commander, with a past 23 years in prison behind him, who immediately showed the dominant signs of his ferocity by ordering the killing of many members of the Democratic Party and the movement of the Pamiri community.
In this situation, a riot broke out in Dushanbe which forced Nabiyev to flee. A. Iskandarov was nominated “interim” president and the prime minister of the new fragile government A. Abdullojonov. But this new order was not recognized outside the capital since in all the peripheral districts the only ones that directed the operations were the various armed groups, mainly those led by Safarov.
In November 1992 the weak government fell due to the inability to face the situation and then the Supreme Soviet abolished the office of president and power was centralized in the hands of secretary Rahmanov.
In December 1992 the government regained possession of the capital and in March 1993 control over the entire territory was restored. To encourage the cessation of hostilities and the return to the constitutional government was the massive intervention of Russian troops present in the country, but also of Uzbekistan which, for fear that a similar situation would occur within its own borders, had sent its own troops in number rather consistent.
The new government formed, in 1993 began a program of restrictions beginning to outlaw all the opposing parties. Only parties sponsored by government officials were admitted. In April 1994, talks between the sectors in conflict began with the United Nations mediation. In November 1994, new elections were held, but without the opposition still forced to go underground and exile.
When peace talks between the warring parties were over, an agreement was signed in the presence of various representatives including Yeltsin, Tajik President Rahmonov, opposition leader SA Nuri, Iranian Foreign Minister Vaylati and D. Merrem, in charge of the United Nations.
The Tajikistan civil war was finally over and a good part of the half million refugees were able to return home.
With the agreement, the integration into the regular armed forces of those of the opposition had been agreed, as well as the assignment of 30% of government posts.
However, some factions continued their terrorist attacks and many leaders of neighboring countries used all their means to convince the reluctant guerrillas to lay down their weapons.
Russia worked especially in this, on which the country depended the most on security and economic development. And precisely for the latter, when the serious financial crisis of the summer of 1998 occurred in Russia, Tajikistan also suffered the consequences.
Meanwhile, in March 1998, KA Turajonzoda, head of the Islamic opposition, had returned home from Iranian exile, and he was entrusted with the position of vice-premier. In addition, the government had already decreed the release of 300 opposing prisoners.
Turajonzoda declared that he would not do any work to impose an Islamic regime on the country. Meanwhile, in the region of Kofernihan, his homeland, new armed clashes were taking place between the government and the opponents, still opposed to the peace agreement.
On July 21, 1998, four United Nations representatives were killed by rebels in a location some 170 kilometers from the capital. Of course, the United Nations withdrew all its observers, while in the country the situation gradually worsened.
To try to solve the serious problems of all kinds that plagued the weak coalition government, Rahmonov asked for Russian assistance. For this reason, a multi-year treaty was signed in Moscow in April 1999 which in the meantime established a broad strengthening of the Russian military contingent on the territory. Then, in September 1999, Rahmonov made a change to the Constitution by legalizing Islamic parties and also called the first political elections after the civil war, and was confirmed president in November of the same year.
In February 2000, the new elections awarded the victory to the Democratic People’s Party, which was ever closer to the President, but the Communist Party also obtained a fair number of votes and the Islamic Renaissance Party constituted the third force.