Wildlife and Plant Life in Israel
Wildlife in Israel
Israel ‘s more than 100 mammals include a large number of bats (at least 30 species) and rodents. Hermon forest mice, a desert mouse and a desert rat are the country’s only endemic (native) species, all endangered. Rock grouper, southern hare and wild boar are widely used. Arabia gas cells are most common in the north, dorcas gas cells and nubiaste capricorn in the south. Arabiaoryx, fallow deer and onager (half seals) were eradicated in the 20th century but reintroduced. Lion and cheetah are extinct, leopard, wolf and striped hyenas occur only in remote coat. Golden jackal, red fox, badger, polecat, pine marten and Pharaoh rat (Mangust) is more common predators, in desert regions also sand, blandford- and Fennec Fox (Fennek).
Israel is located along the important migratory route from Eastern Europe and West Asia to Africa, more than 540 species of birds have been observed. At least one million birds of prey, distributed in 30 species, pass Elat in the Gulf of Aqaba during the trek. The Hula Lake in the north was one of the important wetland areas of the Middle East before it was drained in the 1950s. Parts of the area are tried to return to their original condition and already have a rich bird life with dwarf cormorants, white pelicans and many herons. More than 170 breeding bird species. Turkish, turtle and palm pigeon, top bark, Arabian bull and Palestinian sunbird are numerous. Colorful smokers like hoopoe, bee-eater, beryllbieter, terne- and kastanjeisfugl are common. Widespread birds of prey include donkey vultures, eagle watch, hawk eagles, snake eagles and tower falcon.
40 lizard species, including chameleon, geckos, lizards and large species such as thorn tail and desert varnish. 34 snake species, of which a few (including Palestinian viper) are poisonous. Fragile amphibian fauna (7–8 species) is associated with the destruction of wetlands. More than 20,000 insect species have been identified. Scorpions are common.
Of freshwater fish, 36 species occur naturally, an additional 12 introduced. 410 fish are known from the coastal waters of the Mediterranean. The coral reefs at Elat swarms of life: 1270 species of fish (distributed among 157 families), several hundred corals and 1120 mollusks. The area is often visited by dugong (sea cow) and dolphins as well as the sea turtle real karet that breed here.
Plant life in Israel
The plant life in Israel is subtropical Mediterranean flora with shrubs and some trees, but little forest, mostly maqui. In dry, over-grazed places there is garrigue, locally called batha. In early spring, many lily plants grow on the steppes, but they soon fade away and give way to an open vegetation of steppe grass and thorny herbs.