State Structure and Political System of Thailand

State structure and political system of Thailand

The Kingdom of Thailand has been a constitutional monarchy since 1932. The last 16th Constitution, adopted in 1997, significantly expands the rights of citizens, their ability to control elections, and creates conditions for combating corruption in the country’s political system. The head of state is the king, now Bhumiphon Adulyadej (Rama IX) of the Chakri dynasty. The king is the moral leader of the country, legitimizes power, acts as an intermediary in a political crisis. King Bhumibol Adulyadej and Queen Sirikit enjoy great respect from their subjects and special love from the peasants, which is largely due to the personal qualities of the royal couple and the social programs they patronize. The supreme legislative body is a bicameral parliament, consisting of the House of Representatives (500 deputies) and the Senate (200 people), elected since 2000.┬áCheck equzhou for political system of Thailand.

Within the framework of the parliamentary system, political parties operate, the oldest of them is the Democratic Party, others, as a rule, are created under a specific leader: the National Aspiration Party, leader Chaovalit Yongchayut; “Chhat Pattana” leader Chatchai Choonhavan; Thai Rak Thai, leader Thaksin Shinawatra, and others. The party that wins the general election forms the government.

Thailand is a unitary state divided into 72 provinces (changwat), which are divided into districts (ampe). Local authorities are under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and are appointed from the center. Recently, attempts have been made to decentralize power. According to legislative amendments (1998), the rights of city and municipal representative bodies of power are expanded. Largest cities (million people): Bangkok, Nakhon Ratchasima (2.54), Ubon Rachathani (1.77), Chiang Mai (1.59) (2000).

Science and culture of Thailand

The first program of state education was adopted in 1932. The modern system of state education includes four levels: 1-2 years of preschool education; 6 years of compulsory primary education; 6 years of secondary education, which has two levels. The literacy rate is 93%, one of the highest in the East Asia region, third after South Korea and Hong Kong. Primary education is practically universal. But only 28% of students enter the 2nd level school (one of the lowest rates in the region). 14% go to higher educational institutions (which is much higher than in other countries), but most go to vocational schools, not universities. Less than 20% of university graduates specialize in science and technology (in Singapore – more than 50%) (all data for 1996). The largest universities in the country: Chulalongkorn Universities (1917),

Thai writing dates back to the 13th century, its creation is attributed to King Ramkhamhaeng, his inscription on a stone stele is famous, describing the state of the kingdom and the principles of government. Poetic styles developed in the 15th-18th centuries. The most popular epic works are Ramakian, Khun Chang and Khun Peng, Inao, Phra Lo, Mahachhat. The most famous classical poet Sunthon Phu (1786-1855), who developed new popular genres, was the author of the unique poem “Phra Aphaimani” and other works.┬áCheck homeagerly for democracy and human rights of Thailand.

The traditional plastic theater of masks – khon originates from the theater of South India and ancient Cambodia. Lakon – traditional theater without masks, nang – shadow theater represent the plots of ancient and medieval classical works. Performances of all types of traditional theater are accompanied by a phiphat orchestra, singing, and recitative. The training of performers for traditional theater is carried out from early childhood at the College of Dramatic Arts under the Ministry of Education.

The literature of Thailand is not well known abroad, but there are many gifted and interesting authors among Thai authors. The classic of modern literature is Khulap Saipradit, who lived in the 20th century. Prince Damrong Rachanuphap (1862-1943), a publisher and compiler of chronicles, collections of literary monuments, author of prefaces to historical and literary works and fundamental literary studies, is considered the largest historian and literary critic in Thailand.

In Soviet times, a number of translations of literary works from Thai into Russian were made. At present, many new writers have appeared. Some stories and novels by Thai authors have been translated into English.

The architecture and fine arts of Thailand are deeply original, embodied in the palace and temple complex of Bangkok and historically associated with the cultures of ancient India, China, and Angkor. Monuments of architecture and sculpture belong to different historical eras and artistic styles: Dvaravati, Lopburi, Chiangsen, Sukhothai, U Thong, Ayutthaya, Ratthanakosin. Of the modern art forms, painting, television drama (classical and modern) are developed. Thai cinematography has recently become very popular among amateurs outside the country, including in Russia. Much attention is paid to the preservation of traditional handicraft production, incl. the manufacture of silverware and the art of woodcarving. The Thais have retained some of the traditional sports. The greatest popularity, incl. in the West, bought thai boxing – muay thai. In the suburbs of Bangkok – Rangsit there is the Muay Thai Institute, where not only athletes from Thailand, but also foreign ones are trained. Phon Qingpet Institute alumni include the first Thai boxer to win a world flyweight title, as well as Phim Aranlek Sit Aran, who at the 1996 Atlanta Olympics became the first ever Thai boxer to win an Olympic gold medal.

Politics of Thailand

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