State Structure and Political System of Mongolia
Mongolia is a sovereign independent democratic constitutional state with a parliamentary form of government (parliamentary republic). The 1992 Constitution is in force. Check equzhou for political system of Mongolia.
Mongolia is divided into 21 aimaks (Arkhangai, Bayan-Ulgii, Bayankhongor, Bulgan, Gobialtai, Gobi-Sumber, Darkhan-Ul, Vostochny Gobi, Vostochny, Middle Gobi, Zavkhan, Orkhon, Uvurkhangay, South Gobi, Sukhe-Bator, Selenga, Central, Uvsanur, Kobdo, Khubsgul, Khentii) and Ulaanbaatar administrative regions. Aimaks are divided into soums, soums – into bags, the capital – into districts, districts – into khorons. The largest cities: Ulaanbaatar, Erdenet, Darkhan, Choibalsan, Kobdo.
The head of state is the president, elected on an alternative basis for 4 years by universal direct and secret suffrage. The president can only be in power for two terms. The President is also the Commander-in-Chief of the country’s Armed Forces. The current head of state is N. Bagabandi. Elected May 18, 1997. Re-elected May 20, 2001.
The supreme body of legislative power is the State Great Khural (VGH), consisting of 76 members elected by popular vote by secret ballot for a term of 4 years. The current chairman of the VGH is S. Tumur-Ochir.
The supreme body of executive power is the government, which is formed by the VGH on the proposal of the prime minister and agreement with the president. The President submits the candidacy of the head of the Cabinet of Ministers for consideration by the Supreme State Council. The government is accountable to the VGH. The current head of government is Prime Minister N. Enkhbayar. Check homeagerly for democracy and human rights of Mongolia.
In the localities, power is exercised by local self-government bodies: aimag, city, district and somon khurals, whose deputies are elected by the population for a term of 4 years.
Prominent statesmen: D. Sukhe-Bator (1893–1923), founder of the MPRP, leader of the Mongolian People’s Revolution of 1921, Kh. joint operations of Soviet and Mongolian troops on Khalkhin Gol; Y. Tsedenbal (1916-91) – statesman and party leader, general secretary of the Central Committee of the MPRP in 1940-54 and 1981-84; 1st Secretary of the Central Committee of the MPRP in 1958-81; Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the MPR in 1952–74; Chairman of the Presidium of the All-Russian National Economy in 1974-84.
Before the beginning 1990s In Mongolia, there was a one-party system – the ruling party was the MPRP. In 2003, 17 political parties were registered in Mongolia. The largest of them are: the MPRP (121 thousand members), the Democratic Party (DP), the Civil Courage – Republican Party, the Fatherland – Mongolian New Socialist Party, which have their representatives in the VGH. Other political parties do not play a significant role in the socio-political life of the country. The Democratic Party, which lost the 2000 election, and other opposition MPRP forces are coordinating to achieve a rematch in the 2004 elections. The Democratic Party and the Civil Courage-Republican Party signed an agreement to form the Democratic Force coalition.
Leading business organizations: Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Association of Meat Exporters.
The domestic political situation in Mongolia is quite stable. The one-party government formed by the MPRP is aimed at pursuing a balanced and balanced domestic and foreign policy. At the same time, it has not yet been possible to completely reverse the negative trends that have developed in the past, primarily in the economy and the social sphere. The lack of funds for social needs remains an acute problem.
The financial and budgetary situation in the country became more complicated due to the fact that the budgeted prices for the main export products – copper, goat down, wool – turned out to be lower due to falling world prices. The situation was exacerbated due to natural and climatic disasters, to combat which the government was forced to use state financial reserves.
The ruling MPRP and the opposition Democratic Party adhere to essentially similar social democratic principles and programs. Their rivalry is not in the nature of disagreements on fundamental political issues, but rather comes down to the struggle for access to public administration and control over the spending of budgetary funds.
The law on the transfer of land to the citizens of Mongolia was adopted and entered into force – a step that none of the previous governments dared to do (land in Mongolia had never been in private ownership). The process of formation of the legislative base for political and economic reform of the country continues.
The privatization program, which aims to transfer up to 80% of large objects to private ownership, is being implemented at a slow pace, foreign capital does not show the expected interest in privatized objects.
After 1990, Mongolia’s foreign relations expanded markedly. In 1994, the VGH approved the Foreign Policy Concept of Mongolia. The expansion of ties with the outside world for Mongolia, a landlocked country, is one of the most important conditions for political transformation and market reforms. The foreign policy activities of all branches of government were concentrated on finding additional financial resources abroad. In 1990, a movement of donor countries, led by Japan, was created to support the development of the Mongolian economy (more than 30 countries and international organizations). During this time, Mongolia allocated approx. $1 billion (soft loans, grants).
The Parliament and the government, focusing on priority interaction with neighboring Russia and China, proclaimed a “multi-vector” policy, made relations with the United States among the priorities, and also intend to expand cooperation with the countries of the Asia-Pacific region, Europe, and international financial and economic organizations. The United States has been declared a strategic partner of Mongolia. Mongolia is showing an active interest in establishing economic cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region, connecting to regional and sub-regional financial and economic structures, primarily ASEAN and APEC.
Mongolia cooperates with the EU. In 1992-2001, the EU implemented and continues to implement more than 90 specific projects in Mongolia (worth 49.2 million euros) within the framework of bilateral cooperation and partnership. The EU is one of the major investors in Mongolia.
During the reform of the Armed Forces of Mongolia, their number was reduced and in 2003 amounted to 7,000 people. Mongolia is ready to resume military-technical cooperation with the Russian Federation. Steps are being taken to develop military-technical cooperation with the United States, NATO countries (Germany, Belgium, Turkey), China, South Korea, Japan, and Malaysia.
In 2002, spending on military purchases, mainly of small arms and ammunition, amounted to $260,000; purchases are related to the preparation of units for participation in the actions of the UN peacekeeping forces. A stake is placed on the regular use of special forces of the Armed Forces of Moscow in the UN peacekeeping forces and their preliminary training in NATO countries and the USA. Mongolia is already taking part in peacekeeping operations (Congo, Bangladesh).
Mongolia has acceded to the Convention on the Destruction of Chemical Weapons and the Prohibition of Biobacteriological Weapons; it is also a party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.
Mongolia has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (established with the USSR in 1921). January 20, 1993 signed an interstate agreement on friendly relations and cooperation.