State Structure and Political System of Bangladesh
Bangladesh is a unitary republic with a parliamentary form of government. The country has a 1972 constitution. Check equzhou for political system of Bangladesh.
The country is divided into 6 regions: Dhaka, Chittagong, Khulna, Rajahi, Barisal and Sylhet. Each of them consists of districts (there are 64 of them), districts (thana), of which there are 492 in the country. The lowest administrative unit – “union” – includes a group of villages, their approx. 4.5 thousand villages in the country 68 thousand.
The largest cities (1999, million people): Dhaka (approx. 7) – the capital of the state, industrial and cultural center; Chittagong (2.7) – the main seaport and commercial and industrial center with a free export zone; Khulna (1.6) is a major transport hub; Rajshahi (0.7) – has a large university, opened in 1954.
The constitution proclaimed Bangladesh a unitary, independent, sovereign republic and declared that all power in the republic belongs to the people.
Bangladesh is a parliamentary republic with the rule of representative bodies and a clear separation of powers. The supreme legislative power is represented by the parliament. The executive branch is headed by the government and its prime minister. The President of the country performs mainly ceremonial and representative functions. The prime minister plays the leading role in the system of government. The judiciary is headed by the Supreme Court, which manages the activities of all lower judicial bodies and ensures that the activities of the administrative bodies do not go beyond the limits established by law and do not infringe on the basic rights of citizens fixed in the Constitution. Check homeagerly for democracy and human rights of Bangladesh.
The highest legislative body is the unicameral parliament (National Assembly). It consists of 300 elected members. The term of office of Parliament is 5 years. Its first session is convened within a month after the general election. Bills are adopted by a simple majority of votes of deputies; amendments to the Constitution require at least 2/3 of the votes. All bills (except financial ones) require the approval of the President. A presidential veto can be overridden by re-passing the bill in Parliament. The right of veto practically does not extend to the process of adopting amendments to the Constitution.
The supreme body of executive power is the central government. Its head is the Prime Minister. All members of the government are appointed by the president. However, in accordance with the Constitution, the leader of the majority party in Parliament must be appointed to the position of Prime Minister. The government is formed by the president on the advice of the prime minister. Only a Member of Parliament can be a Minister. The Government is collectively responsible to the National Assembly and is in power as long as it has the support of a majority of the members of Parliament. Otherwise, it must resign or the prime minister will propose to the president that parliament be dissolved and new elections called. The resignation of the head of government means the dissolution of the latter.
The head of state is the president. Elected for a term of 5 years by members of parliament. He depends on the majority party that nominated him and secured his election as president. Differences between them can lead to the resignation of the president, as happened with B. Chowdhury as a result of his conflict with the leadership of the BNP in June 2002. Instead of him, another supporter of this party, I. Ahmed, was elected to the post of head of state in September. The president can be removed from office by impeachment, for this proposal must be voted by at least 2/3 of the members of parliament. Formally, the head of state has broad powers. He appoints and removes, in accordance with established rules, the prime minister, ministers, members of the Supreme Court, ambassadors, members of the Electoral Commission. The President is entrusted with the supreme command of the Armed Forces of the Republic. He convenes sessions of Parliament and dissolves it. Has a suspensive veto. However, all these functions are performed by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister.
At the first session after the elections, the parliament elects the speaker and his deputy. The Speaker presides over the meetings of the National Assembly, manages its work, and monitors the observance of the regulations. In the event of the President’s temporary absence, his duties are performed by the Speaker of the House, and the Speaker’s work is carried out by his Deputy.
The head of the supreme body of executive power is the Prime Minister. He is appointed by the president from among the members of parliament, provided that the candidate has the confidence of the majority of deputies. The president exercises his powers on the recommendations of the prime minister, who is the main link in the state machine of Bangladesh.
The right to vote is granted to citizens who have reached the age of 18. The age limit for a deputy of parliament is 25 years, for the president – 35 years. Parliament is elected for a term of 5 years through direct, secret and equal elections according to the majoritarian system of relative majority. To conduct elections in the country, 300 electoral districts, approximately equal in population, are created, each of which has one deputy. If any candidate has no rivals, then he remains elected without a vote. The same principle applies to other elections (for example, presidential ones).
In the oblasts, the administrative apparatus is managed by a commissar appointed by the center, in districts, by a deputy commissar, in a thana, by a district administrator, and in a “union” by the head of the local administration. The lower state body is appointed by the higher one and is subordinate to it. At all these levels, there are self-government bodies (“parishads”), elected by the population for 5 years.
Prominent State Officials. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (1920–75), first leader of Bangladesh from 1972–75. Ziaur Rahman (1936-81), with con. August 1975 – Chief of Staff of the Ground Forces, from November 1976 – head of the military regime in the country, in 1977-81 – President of Bangladesh Khaleda Zia Rahman (born 1945), widow of Ziaur Rahman, head of the BNP, Prime Minister in March 1991-June 1996 and in October 2001. Hasina Wazed (b. 1946), daughter of Mujibur Rahman, heads Awami League. Prime Minister (June 1996-June 2001)
Bangladesh has a multi-party system; There are approximately 100 political parties in the country. In practice, however, a two-party system operates: the BNP and the Awami League dominate the political arena and alternately replace each other at the helm of power. After the elections in October 2001, they have 196 and 58 seats in parliament, respectively. The National Party (established in November 1983) was formed under the auspices of the army to strengthen the military regime. Its leader is H.M. Ershad. It has 19 seats in parliament. Jamaat-i Islami (established in August 1941) is the oldest fundamentalist party. Its leader is Maulana Nizami. It has 17 seats in Parliament. The National People’s Party of Bangladesh (PNPB) has been functioning since the autumn of 1967 (before that it was part of the all-Pakistani party of the same name). The head of the NNPB is Muzaffar Ahmad. She advocated broad democratic reforms, for the independence of Bangladesh. It fights against reactionary, Islamist forces, for the strengthening of secularism and democracy. Communist Party of Bangladesh (CPB). The leader is Manzurul Ahsan Khan. Operates since March 1948, actively fought for the autonomous rights of East Bengal, for the formation of an independent NRB.
The main groups of entrepreneurs are united by the Federation of Chambers of Commerce and Industry of Bangladesh. It advocates the creation of favorable conditions for economic growth with the leading role of the private sector. Coordinates the activities of regional chambers of commerce and industry (Dhaka, Chittagong, etc.), industry unions of entrepreneurs and manufacturers. The Bangladesh Consumers Association monitors the prices of finished products.
The major trade union organizations are the United Council of Workers and Employees; Trade Union of Engineers, Doctors and Agricultural Workers; Association of Medical Workers, Federation of Road Transport Workers. A number of trade unions adjoin political parties. The main peasant organizations: the Peasant Union of the CPB, the Peasant Organization “Avami League”, the Peasant Union of the NNPB. Under the influence of political parties, the Student League and the People’s Youth League (Awami League), the Youth League and the Students’ Union (KPB), the Nationalist Student Party (NPB), and the Bangladesh Student Union (NNPB) were created and operate. Other public organizations: Bangladesh Women’s Association, Red Cross Federation, Refugee Association.
The internal policy of Bangladesh is aimed at overcoming the economic backwardness of the country and raising the living standards of the population. An important task is the democratization of political life, the strengthening of the parliamentary system, as well as upholding secularist principles and limiting Islamic radicalism.
The foreign policy of Bangladesh is largely designed to help resolve domestic problems, develop cooperation in the international arena, and strengthen national security. Bangladesh takes an active part in the activities of the UN, its main organs and specialized agencies, in UN peacekeeping operations. In 2001, out of 15 such operations, she participated in 10. An important task of Bangladesh’s foreign policy is to strengthen cooperation with neighboring countries, especially with India.
The Armed Forces (AF) are entrusted with three main tasks: defense against external threats, maintaining internal security, and helping the population in the fight against natural disasters.
The President is the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces. They are directly led by the chiefs of staff of the three branches of the armed forces. The staffing of the Armed Forces is carried out on a voluntary basis.
Regular aircraft number 137 thousand people. The main type of the Armed Forces is the Ground Forces (120 thousand). They are armed with small arms, tanks, armored personnel carriers, artillery pieces, mortars. The Air Force has 6.5 thousand people. They have 83 combat aircraft, transport and training aircraft and helicopters. The Navy has 10.5 thousand personnel. The fleet has frigates, boats.
Bangladesh has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (established with the USSR on January 24, 1972).